How to distinguish edible mushrooms from poisonous ones and not bring toadstools and fly agarics from the forest
The dangers of a quiet hunt
Quite soon, the season of quiet hunting will burst - the season of collecting tasty and healthy mushrooms, and rows of mushroom pickers will stretch in orderly rows into the forests in order to collect as many of these gifts of nature as possible. Unfortunately, not all mushrooms are useful, some can be severely poisoned, and a number of especially dangerous ones may well lead to the death of a person.
It is extremely difficult to know all the tribes by sight, because there are several thousand types of them only in Russia, but everyone is quite capable of remembering the most dangerous of them, with this you will save yourself and your loved ones.
Let's start with the titles - the most dangerous mushroomscontaining a huge amount of poison are: death cap, stinky fly agaric, waxy talker and fiberglass patuillard... These mushrooms retain poison in their body not only after soaking, but even after drying, boiling and salting. Absolutely everyone who is going to go fishing should know them.
The most famous and most dangerous mushroom, on account of which more than a dozen lives, is death cap... This mushroom can be found in both coniferous and deciduous forests. The first toadstools appear at the very beginning of summer, and you can run into them later until the very frost.
The pale toadstool has a convex cap, which becomes prostrate with age. Its color can be white, yellowish-brown or light green. The flesh on a break or cut is white, odorless and tasteless, and the stem of this mushroom is thin and long with an extension at the bottom, rounded, most often white, but sometimes yellowish. A characteristic feature - on the leg, closer to the hat, there is always and is clearly visible a white skirt encircling the leg with a ring.
This mushroom is quite peculiar, but you can still confuse it - with an edible champignon. However, unlike the poisonous mushroom, the champignon has pink or brown plates and the ring is very thin and filmy.
There is also a green variety of pale toadstool, it can be confused with a green russula, however, in a russula, the leg does not expand downward like a toadstool, and it does not have a ringlet.
Another danger of pale toadstool is that the first signs of poisoning sometimes appear no earlier than an hour after eating it.
Stinky fly agaric
Stinky fly agaric
Much like a pale toadstool stinky fly agaric... Its cap is conical, pure white, but gives away its flesh - it has a very pungent, unpleasant odor.
The leg of the stinking fly agaric is even, at the base it noticeably thickens. There is also a ring, it is white and rather delicate.
In deciduous and coniferous forests can be found fiberglass patuillard... The danger is that this poisonous mushroom often grows among champignons and other edible mushrooms.
The cap of the filamentous fungus is conical at a young age, and as the mushroom body ages, it straightens. In young mushrooms, the color of the cap is whitish, then it becomes straw-yellow and, finally, in old mushrooms it acquires a reddish tint. The stem is the same color as the cap and has a noticeable bulge at the base.
At the very end of summer or at the beginning of autumn, you can find and waxy talker... It lives in both mixed and coniferous forests.
The whole mushroom - both the leg and the cap - are white in color. The dangerous thing is that both the taste and smell of the mushroom pulp are quite pleasant, well, but a special distinguishing feature is only that the plates pass from the cap to the leg.
So, we have dealt with the deadly mushrooms, now we move on to the category highly poisonous... These are the mushrooms that almost never lead to death, but cause severe poisoning, fraught with complications and loss of health.
These mushrooms are sometimes quite similar in appearance to edible mushrooms, and the first in this list of masters of disguise is gall mushroom or bitter... Even a couple of grams of this mushroom can spoil a keg of pickled edible mushrooms, they all magically become bitter.
The gall mushroom is similar to the king of mushrooms - white or boletus, but the pink surface of the tubular layer, which is atypical for these edible mushrooms, pink flesh and brown, and not white like that of edible mushrooms, a net on the leg, should immediately catch your eye.
The second place is rightfully taken by red champignon... It has most of the characteristics of an edible champignon, however, it is highly toxic.
External differences, which should definitely be striking, are the yellowing of the mushroom tissue at the breaks and an unpleasant smell reminiscent of carbolic acid.
False Foam sulfur yellow
In third place is confidently located sulfur yellow false froth... This is one of the few types of inedible mushrooms.
The mushroom can be quite easily distinguished by the color of the cap plates - at a young age they are sulfur-yellow, and over time they become greenish. The mushroom pulp itself has a bitter taste and should immediately raise suspicion.
Amanita witch circle
The last place is occupied by mushrooms, which can be distinguished from edible ones, probably, even by a schoolboy - fly agarics... However, do not think that the fly agaric is always red. It happens white, as indicated above, and yellow, and green, and even brown.
The fly agaric hat is spectacular, one might say, even beautiful, it is covered with flakes characteristic only of this type of mushroom, and the leg is noticeably expanded from below and has a ringlet. The flesh of the mushroom smells so unpleasant that flies really die from this smell.
This is what it is the main poisonous mushrooms of Russian forests, it is easy to remember them, but do not flatter yourself and be sure that the description will exactly match what you see in the forest where this mushroom grew. Unfortunately, this is not the case, and the living conditions of the poisonous mushroom leave their mark on its appearance. Therefore, going into the forest, you need to consult with local experienced mushroom pickers about the intricacies of the appearance of this or that toadstool.
By the way, not all mushroom gatherers get them in the forest. Some are happy to find and eat those specimens that have grown in a copse, in a grove, near houses or on a lawn. However, you need to be very careful in this. Mushrooms, even edible ones, often absorb, like a sponge, various toxic substances contained in the soil of large cities and in their air. They can be harmful to health. You need to keep this in mind, and you should not risk picking mushrooms near the roads along which cars move and along the railroad tracks. For example, mushrooms such as pigs can absorb so much heavy metals that they can be poisoned almost more easily than pale toadstool.
When picking mushrooms, it is also important not only to distinguish edible from inedible, but also to properly preserve them and skillfully prepare them. You should not collect old and overgrown mushrooms, they can harm the body, and cooking them is long and difficult. You do not need to use mushrooms damaged by pests for food, and, of course, if the mushroom is in doubt, it is better to leave it in place. Follow a simple and understandable rule for everyone - I take only what I know.
After bringing the mushrooms home, you must immediately sort them out and use them. There is no point in delaying processing - mushrooms, especially those in plastic bags, will not last long. The only exception here can be porcini mushrooms - they lie for a long time, being frozen.
When cooking mushrooms, pay more attention to conventionally edible ones, such as milk mushrooms: first you need to boil them, then drain the broth. And only then can you salt or fry. By the way, about salting: it is better to pickle mushrooms in containers with air access, and not in an airtight container, as some people think. This is the only way to completely protect yourself from botulism poisoning.
Well, in conclusion, about what to do if someone is still poisoned by mushrooms. Firstly, you should immediately call an ambulance, and while she is driving, you do not need to groan and run around - you should induce vomiting from the poisoned person as soon as possible and empty the stomach. After that, you need to put the person to bed and apply a heating pad to his feet.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Researcher, Berry Crops Department
GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin,
member of the R&D Academy
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
During the mushroom picking season, the forest is filled with lovers of "quiet hunting". To do this, a person must be well versed in all the diversity of forest organisms and not confuse twin mushrooms with edible originals.
- The main signs
- Doubles of the porcini mushroom
- Doubles of autumn honey agarics
- Champignon doubles
- Twins of the blushing fly agaric
If possible, it is best for beginners to go to the forest in the company of experienced mushroom pickers. If there is the slightest doubt, the specialist will always answer the questions of interest, and will also help to distinguish between edible and poisonous fruits by their characteristic features.
Properly selected clothing plays an important role in safety during the "quiet hunt". It should be free, but at the same time reliably protect the body from insects. Shoes must be closed. Neither slippers nor sandals will work in this case. You also need to wear a cap, hat or scarf on your head.
For harvesting fruits, the best option is a basket made of pine shingles, birch bark or vines. Plastic buckets or plastic bags will not work, especially if the mushroom picker is targeting redheads, boletus or boletus.
Advice! The opinion is erroneous that the further a person enters the forest, the greater the harvest will be. In fact, you need to look for fruits on the edges, in ravines, along forest paths and forest belts. And many edible mushrooms grow in parks or gardens.
It is strongly not recommended to harvest mushrooms in places located within a radius of 0.5-1 km from roads or busy highways. Fruits have one feature: they accumulate harmful substances, toxins and heavy metals. These elements are not completely neutralized either during cooking, or during frying, or during other types of cooking.
How to tell if a mushroom is edible Mushrooms are indispensable in many dishes. Forest specimens are especially appreciated - white, boletus, milk mushrooms, volushkas, chanterelles and many others. But before you go in search of them, armed with a large basket, you should find out which mushrooms can be collected and which ones are best left in the forest. Instructions: 1. Before going into the forest, novice mushroom pickers need to find out what edible mushrooms look like. It is advisable to see them not in the picture, but in reality. Ask a friend experienced in this business to show you real boletus and boletus, and ideally - to take you on a "quiet hunt". Please note that only certain types of mushrooms will be found in certain areas. For example, in a birch forest there are probably russula and boletus, and in a pine fox - mushrooms. Remember mushroom places - next season a new harvest will be waiting for you on these lands. 2. Having found a family of mushrooms that seem familiar to you, take a closer look at the largest specimens. If worms are found in such a mushroom, this means that it is edible. Worms do not touch poisonous species. 3. It is better for inexperienced mushroom pickers to focus on collecting tubular mushrooms - white, boletus, boletus, boletus. Most of them are classified as edible. It is more difficult with lamellar species - many of them have very similar twins. For example, in addition to tasty mushrooms, there are false mushrooms, and some toadstools surprisingly resemble mushrooms or russula. 4. Conditionally edible mushrooms are best left in the forest. 5. Experienced "quiet hunters" advise you to pay special attention to white and greenish mushrooms - this is the color typical of toadstools. The exception is fly agaric. But this bright mushroom is unlikely to fall into the basket, it is too noticeable. Note that in addition to red, there are grayish-green specimens with the same white dots. 6. Do not trust "folk methods" like breaking a mushroom, sniffing it and looking at it. The darkening of the scrap has nothing to do with the degree of toxicity of a particular specimen. And in any case, do not taste suspicious mushrooms. Inedible mushrooms are not always bitter - for example, the especially dangerous pale toadstool has a pleasant sweetish taste. In this case, half of the cap of such a mushroom is enough to get severe poisoning. How to recognize a poisonous mushroom Of course, there are about a hundred poisonous species of mushrooms. Of these, only eight are deadly poisonous. The most poisonous mushroom is the Galerina sulciceps growing in Java and Sri Lanka. Even one eaten fruit leads to death in half an hour or an hour. In Europe and North America, the white (spring) fly agaric and the smelly fly agaric are considered the most poisonous. The most poisonous, deadly for humans is the pale grebe, for which no antidote has yet been found. It is often confused with champignon, sometimes with russula. 30 mg of poison is enough to kill an adult. Distinctive features of a pale toadstool are a ring on the leg, a "cup" at the base of the leg and the white color of the cap plates. According to the first two signs, a pale toadstool can be distinguished from russules, and according to the second and third - from champignons (their plates are pinkish or dark). One of the dangers for inexperienced mushroom pickers are not well-known fly agarics and toadstools, which look like edible poisonous mushrooms. The white mushroom most desirable for mushroom pickers has several counterparts among the poisonous ones. The gall mushroom is outwardly almost indistinguishable from the white one, and even an experienced mushroom picker can make a mistake. Pay attention to the lower surface of the mushroom cap: in the poisonous one it is pink, and on the cut, a piece of the cap quickly turns red. It is not for nothing that the satanic mushroom has such an ominous name. Its leg is much thicker than that of the boletus, the upper part of the leg is pinkish. Cut off the flesh of such a mushroom, and if it quickly turns red and then turns blue, throw it away immediately! The Satanic mushroom is one of the most poisonous. Paradoxically, you can even get poisoned with good, edible mushrooms. You should not pick old, overgrown mushrooms. Poisonous substances accumulate in them, and even boletus, porcini mushrooms, boletus mushrooms can cause serious poisoning. It is quite difficult to distinguish good from poisonous mushrooms even for experienced mushroom pickers. So, at the end of summer, mushrooms appear en masse and at the same time in the forest you can find their counterparts - poisonous sulfur-yellow and brown-red mushrooms. You should be alerted by the reddish or milky white plates, the thickened base of the mushroom. These are the hallmarks of inedible mushrooms. Edible autumn mushrooms have a honey cap with scales, there is a white film, the purpose of which is to tie the stem of the mushroom to the edge of the cap.Brown-red mushrooms are distinguished by an unpleasant, pungent smell and taste, and the poison they contain affects the gastrointestinal tract. Mushrooms such as stitches and morels are also poisonous. The poison contained in them is not destroyed by boiling and causes acute poisoning, especially in children. There are a number of mushrooms that should not be eaten raw. These are the so-called milkers, or milk mushrooms, our favorite mushrooms, volushki. In some countries, they are considered poisonous and are not eaten. You can make these mushrooms edible by prolonged soaking or boiling. Mushrooms should be soaked for several days. The broth must be drained, and the mushrooms are fried. There are about 50 types of mushrooms that, if insufficiently cooked or eaten raw, cause acute poisoning. Extreme attentiveness and accuracy during a "quiet hunt" will allow you to recognize a poisonous mushroom in time and protect yourself from danger. Be healthy!
Poisonous mushrooms in the forests of Russia
Earlier, we have already noted that for safety, a novice mushroom picker should limit himself to a detailed study of one or two edible mushrooms, for which he goes to the forest. But information about edible mushrooms is not all there is to know. You should also familiarize yourself with the description of the main most common poisonous mushrooms, which are likely to be found during the "quiet hunt".
Of the one and a half hundred poisonous mushrooms found on the territory of Russia, only a few species are deadly poisonous. The rest cause either food poisoning or lead to disorders of the nervous system. But since this can hardly be considered a mitigating circumstance, every mushroom picker should know how to distinguish edible from inedible mushrooms. And this is impossible without a good knowledge of the actual poisonous mushrooms.
As the statistics show, most often Russians are poisoned with pale toadstool. It is one of the most poisonous and at the same time the most common mushrooms in the country. Inexperienced mushroom pickers mistake it for champignons, russula and other edible lamellar mushrooms. Toadstool can be recognized by the yellow-brown, dirty green, light olive and often snow-white (young mushrooms) color of the caps. Usually in the center of the cap it is slightly darker and lighter at the edge. On the underside of the cap are white soft plates. There is a ring on the leg.
False honey mushrooms can be found on the roots and stumps of trees, which is why beginners confuse it with real honey mushrooms and other edible mushrooms on trees. The fungus causes food poisoning, and therefore is not as dangerous as a toadstool. It can be distinguished from real honey mushrooms by its color (not brown, but light orange or yellowish) and the absence of a ring on the leg (real mushrooms have it right under the cap).
Amanita in our minds are synonymous with poisonous mushrooms. At the same time, an ordinary city dweller imagines a typical picture - a large fleshy mushroom with a bright red cap and white speckled with a white leg. In fact, only one of more than 600 species of fly agarics looks like this. By the way, pale toadstool formally also refers to fly agarics. So, in addition to the well-known red fly agaric and toadstool, one should also be wary of green fly agaric, stinking fly agaric, panther fly agaric and white fly agaric. Outwardly, some of them are very similar to edible mushrooms in September. The probability of meeting them in the forest is quite high.
The satanic mushroom is found mainly in the south and in Primorye. It is toxic, although it rarely leads to death. The mushroom is large enough, has an irregularly shaped cap and a massive leg. The stem can have various shades of red. The color of the cap also varies: the most common mushrooms are with a white, dirty gray or olive cap. Sometimes it can very much resemble some edible mushrooms of the Primorsky Territory, in particular, boletus.
The slender pig is a harmful, although not deadly, mushroom. For a long time, experts did not have a consensus on whether a pig is an edible mushroom or not. It was only about 30 years ago that it was finally struck off the list of edibles, as it was proven to destroy the kidneys and cause food poisoning. It can be recognized by a fleshy flattened cap with a curved edge. Young individuals are distinguished by the olive color of the cap, the older ones are gray-brown or rusty-brown. The stem is olive or gray-yellow and slightly lighter than the cap, or similar in color to it.
In the forests of the middle zone, in the mountains of Kamchatka and on the Kola Peninsula, in the forest belts of the North Caucasus and the famous steppes of Kazakhstan, in the regions of Central Asia, more than 300 species of edible mushrooms grow, which lovers of "quiet hunting" like to collect so much.
Indeed, the activity is very exciting and interesting, which, moreover, allows you to feast on the harvested crop. However, you need to know the mushrooms so that poisonous ones do not get into the basket along with the edible ones, using which you can get severe food poisoning. Edible mushrooms with photos, names and descriptions are offered for familiarization to everyone interested in picking mushrooms.
Beautiful, but "shitty mushroom"
This is exactly the case when the title matches the content. It is not for nothing that a false valui mushroom or a horseradish mushroom was dubbed by the people with such an indecent word - not only is it poisonous, but also the pulp is bitter, but the smell is simply disgusting and not at all mushroom. But on the other hand, it is thanks to its "aroma" that it will not work to get into the trust of a mushroom picker under the guise of a russula, to which Valui is very similar.
The scientific name of the fungus sounds like "sticky hebeloma".
False valui grows everywhere, but most often it can be seen at the end of summer on the light edges of coniferous and deciduous forests, under an oak, birch or aspen. The cap of a young mushroom is creamy white, convex, with the edges tucked down. With age, its center bends inward and darkens to a yellow-brown color, while the edges remain light. The skin on the cap is beautiful and smooth, but sticky. The bottom of the cap consists of adherent plates of gray-white color in young Valuev, and dirty yellow in old specimens. The dense bitter flesh has a corresponding color. The leg of the false valuy is quite high, about 9 cm. At the base it is wide, then tapers upwards, covered with a white bloom, similar to flour.
A characteristic feature of the "horseradish mushroom" is the presence of black blotches on the plates.
7 dangerous mushroom myths
«Errare humanum est ", - Seneca once said. Humans tend to make mistakes. Everything is true, but there are mistakes and misconceptions that are too expensive, so it's better not to make them anyway.
There are many myths and misconceptions associated with mushrooms.
There are many myths and misconceptions associated with mushrooms. Some of them are absolutely harmless - for example, legends about "witch circles" that exist among different nations. But when it comes to how to distinguish edible from poisonous mushrooms, relying on "folk omens" can be unhealthy.
What dangerous myths do mushroom pickers believe to this day?
Myth 1: snails and worms do not eat poisonous mushrooms.
Not at all! For example, the wonderful and useful chanterelle mushroom is toxic for worms and insects, so they do not touch it, and with many mushrooms poisonous to humans, neither snails nor insect larvae disdain. Moreover, it is not at all safe to use wormy mushrooms for food, even if the mushroom itself is edible.
Myth 2: poisonous mushrooms have an unpleasant smell.
A very unreliable sign! For example, the deadly toadstool, which is deadly to humans, is similar in smell to delicious champignons. Many poisonous mushrooms smell quite common - mushroom. And the perception of aromas is a subjective matter, it cannot serve as a reliable criterion of danger.
One of the main safety rules: take only those mushrooms that you are sure of
Myth 3: poisonous mushrooms taste bitter
It's an extremely dangerous idea to taste a potentially toxic food! And absolutely pointless, besides. The flesh of edible mushrooms, for example, some species of russula, can also taste bitter.
Myth 4: if you put a poisonous mushroom in milk, it will turn sour
The milk will really turn sour. Only with the toxicity of the fungus, this circumstance is not connected: the enzyme that causes the coagulation of milk protein is also present in edible mushrooms.
Myth 5: with prolonged cooking, poisonous mushrooms become harmless.
Not! Not all toxins contained in poisonous mushrooms are destroyed during heat treatment and other culinary manipulations. Neither vinegar, nor salt, nor high temperature will make the poisonous mushroom edible, so you should not try to "protect" yourself in such a dubious way.
No matter how much you cook the fly agaric, it will not become edible
Myth 6: silver turns black in a decoction of poisonous mushrooms.
Yes, it turns black. In the broth of any mushrooms, which contain amino acids containing sulfur. Both poisonous and edible.
Myth 7: alcohol helps with mushroom poisoning
Perhaps this is one of the most dangerous myths about mushrooms. In fact, alcohol can only aggravate the problem: accelerate the absorption of toxins, distort the picture of poisoning, and complicate the doctor's diagnosis.
Only timely and competent actions can really help with mushroom poisoning.For more information, read the article What to do in case of mushroom poisoning. Well, the best thing is to take care of prevention, to exclude the very possibility of a problem.
Poisonous meadow mushrooms. Rating of poisonous mushrooms in Russia. Mushroom pickers note
Experienced mushroom pickers can easily distinguish between edible and inedible mushrooms. In most cases, poisonous mushrooms stand out strongly in color and shape. Even a novice mushroom picker will not cut such a copy. But there is a category of mushrooms that are very similar to edible, but are actually poisonous. It is very important to be able to recognize such natural trickery.
There is an opinion that poisonous mushrooms are emitted by some particularly unpleasant odor. This is not entirely true. Some poisonous mushrooms smell really disgusting, but for most, it is similar to the smell of edible mushrooms.
The most common poisonous mushrooms
"Meat of the earth", as mushrooms are sometimes called, really has a unique taste that beckons fans of a quiet hunt to look for mushroom spots again and again. Experienced "hunters" for the delicacy of nature are well aware that the most common and dangerous among poisonous are such:
- toadstool pale
- stinky fly agaric
- panther fly agaric
- false value
- satanic mushroom
- sulfur-yellow false froth.
It is important to know about the existence of conditionally edible ones, acting on the body selectively in accordance with the circumstances. In the worst case, these mushrooms can cause moderate to moderately severe poisoning. These include:
- violin (felt load)
- rowing (some species are conditionally edible, while others are poisonous)
- pig, etc.
This category of mushrooms contains poisonous resins that have a detrimental effect on the state of the digestive system. An appropriate treatment can play the role of an antidote: prolonged soaking in water, which must be changed periodically, salting with standing for at least 1.5 months. But in some cases, this may not be enough.
But, for example, false chanterelles in some countries they are considered edible (and even among mushroom pickers in Russia there are such beliefs), but with the proviso that they cause an allucinogenic effect, as well as indigestion.
We do not recommend eating (or even touching) mushrooms that are of questionable safety, let alone really dangerous (poisonous) mushrooms.