Growing spring garlic: rules and tricks
Garlic is one of the world's most popular vegetable crops. It is widely demanded not only in cooking, but also in folk medicine. It is hardly possible to find a garden plot where it would not be grown. Culture care is not difficult. Many gardeners, choosing between winter and spring garlic, prefer the latter. This option attracts them with the best keeping quality.
What is spring garlic
There are two varieties of garlic - spring and winter. Both options have their merits, but the first is more profitable for small household plots, and the second for large farms. The yield of winter garlic is on average higher, the bulbs are larger, but spring garlic is healthier. It is not difficult to distinguish between them.
Table: how to distinguish spring garlic from winter garlic
Photo: spring and winter garlic
Video: how to distinguish spring garlic from winter garlic
Popular varieties of spring garlic with photos
Selection does not stand still. Initially, spring garlic in Russia was an exclusively southern crop, but now it is successfully grown in most regions, since it was possible to significantly increase its frost resistance. There are also varieties specially zoned for specific regions. As a rule, this can be determined by the name - Leningradsky, Moskovsky, Cheboksarsky and so on.
Common varieties of spring garlic:
- Abrek. There are no restrictions on the growing region in the State Register of the Russian Federation. A variety of medium ripening. The leaves are long (48–60 cm) covered with a thin layer of waxy coating. The bulbs are slightly flattened, one-dimensional (weighing 26–30 g). Each has an average of 15 teeth. The scales and flesh are white. Differs in a special sharpness of taste. About 0.7 kg of garlic is obtained from 1 m², in particularly successful seasons - up to 1 kg. The minimum shelf life is six months.
Garlic Abrek - a variety for thrill-seekers
- Aleisky. A late ripening variety, ready for harvesting 110–125 days after planting. Bred in Siberia, it is resistant to the vagaries of the weather and temperature extremes. The leaves are low (up to 30 cm), for spring garlic there are few of them (9-10 pieces). The bulbs are round or slightly flattened, weighing 16–25 g. Each has 18–20 cloves. The pulp is very firm and crispy. Up to 1.5 kg of bulbs are removed from 1 m². The harvest will continue without problems until the beginning of next summer. The variety is sensitive to high acidity of the substrate, deficiency of moisture, nitrogen and potassium in the soil - the leaves immediately begin to turn yellow. A serious drawback is the relatively low immunity.
Aleysky garlic often suffers from diseases and is attacked by pests.
- Victorio. Ripening periods are average. Leaves with almost no wax coating, medium-sized (20-25 cm long). The bulb is flat-round, sometimes pear-shaped, large (weighing 38–43 g). Each has 13-15 teeth. The integumentary scales are yellowish-white. The taste is not too spicy. From 1 m² you can get 0.98 kg of bulbs. The minimum shelf life is 8 months. Very good immunity against pathogenic fungi is characteristic.
Victorio's garlic is prized for its mild flavor and long shelf life
- Gulliver. One of the most popular varieties among Russian gardeners. In terms of ripening, it belongs to the middle late. The crop is harvested 90–98 days after planting. It is the only arrow-forming variety of spring garlic. The leaves are large, up to 55 cm long and up to 5 cm wide (the latter is rather atypical for this category of varieties), thick dark green in color with a thick layer of waxy coating. The bulb is noticeably flattened, of almost record size (weighing 90–120 g, some specimens gaining weight 200–250 g). Each has only 3-5 teeth. The integumentary scales are of a dirty gray color. The taste is very spicy and rich. Average yield - 0.98 kg / m². The variety stands out for its high content of vitamin C, proteins and amino acids, as well as good immunity.
Garlic Gulliver fully justifies the name, its heads are very large
- Yelenovsky. In the State Register of the Russian Federation, it is listed as a spring, but it is also suitable for landing before winter. Recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus. In terms of ripening, it belongs to the mid-season, the harvest is harvested after 110-115 days. Leaves are of medium length (35 cm), narrow. The bulbs are almost spherical, small (21–23 g). Each has 15-16 teeth. The integumentary scales are white, the flesh is creamy pink or lilac. Medium spicy taste. The shelf life is very long, up to two years. The variety is prized for its high nematode resistance.
Yelenovsky garlic much less often than other varieties suffers from such a dangerous pest as a nematode.
- Ershovsky. A mid-season variety with no restrictions on the growing region. The leaves are long (about 50 cm). The bulbs are flattened, medium in size (weighing up to 35 g), the number of cloves varies from 16 to 25 pieces. The taste is slightly spicy. Average yield - 0.7 kg / m². The minimum shelf life is 8 months.
Ershovsky garlic is suitable for growing practically throughout Russia.
- Degtyarsky. The variety was bred specifically for cultivation in the Moscow region and nearby regions with a similar climate. It was quickly appreciated by those who grow crops on an industrial scale. The leaves are light green, with almost no wax coating, 35–37 cm long. The bulbs are pear-shaped, the integumentary scales are white, with pinkish-red veins. Each has 16-18 teeth. The average mass reaches 38 g. The pulp is semi-sharp on the palate. Productivity - up to 0.3 kg / m². The shelf life of garlic is at least 7 months.
Degtyarsky garlic was originally intended for cultivation in the Moscow region, but it was quickly appreciated by gardeners living in other regions.
- Kledor. The variety, bred by French breeders, belongs to the elite category. In terms of ripening - mid-season. Differs in low cold resistance, in temperate climates it does not always have time to ripen. The bulbs are very large, 5–6 cm in diameter. Each has 20 or more cloves. The integumentary scales are light gray, the inner ones are pinkish. The pulp is creamy, dense, with a mildly spicy taste. The variety is valued for its good shelf life (at least 10 months), excellent taste and quality. It is extremely rarely affected by pathogenic fungi and bacteria.
Garlic Kledor is an elite variety of French selection, it is highly valued for its excellent immunity
- Permyak. One of the relatively new achievements of Russian breeders. Suitable for growing in any region. Ripening periods are average. The leaves are pale green, slightly more than 30 cm long. The bulb is flattened, weighing 34 g. Each has 16-17 cloves. The integumentary scales are white with dark purple strokes, the flesh is pinkish white. Average yield - 0.3 kg / m². The shelf life of the bulbs is at least 10 months.
Garlic Permyak was bred by domestic breeders relatively recently.
- Flavor. Another variety bred in France, actively grown in Europe on an industrial scale. The average diameter of a bulb is about 6 cm, weight is 80 g. Each bulb has 15–20 cloves. The pulp is very dense and juicy, creamy white, semi-sharp. The minimum shelf life is one year.
Garlic Flavor is very popular with European professional farmers
- Sochi-56. Early ripening variety. The crop is harvested after 80–90 days. It stands out for its excellent frost resistance and good immunity to most diseases typical for the culture. The bulbs are round, large, weighing up to 50–55 g. Each has 25–30 cloves. The taste is balanced, semi-sharp. The storage period of the crop is up to one and a half years. Up to 0.9 kg of bulbs are removed from 1 m².
The undoubted advantages of Sochi-56 garlic are keeping quality, good immunity and cold resistance
Dates of disembarkation and preparation of the garden
Despite the fact that the planting of spring garlic occurs in the spring, the garden for it needs to be prepared in the fall. This type of culture feels good in fairly light and fertile soils (sandy loam, loam) with a neutral acid-base reaction. High acidity can be neutralized by adding dolomite flour, the weight of the soil - with sand, its lightness - with powdered clay.
An open, sunny place is chosen for the garden. It is desirable to have some kind of barrier nearby that protects it from the north wind. A slight slope is also encouraged - in this case, a quick water drain is ensured. The stagnation of moisture at the roots of spring garlic categorically does not tolerate. For the same reason, its landing in the lowlands is excluded - there is melt and rain water for a long time, cold damp air accumulates.
It is imperative to dig a bed for garlic deeply, at the same time clearing it of plant and other debris
The selected area is dug to a depth of 35–40 cm, in the process of introducing all the necessary fertilizers. For 1 m² about three glasses of sifted wood ash, 4–5 liters of humus or rotted compost and 10–15 g of complex fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (Nitroammofosk, Azofosk, Ammofosk) will be used. In the spring, before planting, the bed will need to be loosened well again.
Compared to winter garlic, spring garlic needs more nutritious soil, everything you need is added to the soil in the fall.
We must not forget about crop rotation. Poor precursors for garlic are any bulbous (including flowers), carrots and plants from the Solanaceae family. Any legumes and cereals, greens, all types of cabbage, Pumpkin (cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, squash, melons) are suitable in this regard. The culture can be returned to its original place not earlier than after 5 years.
Garlic carrots are a poor precursor, but a very healthy neighbor
Spring garlic benefits the garden, being planted near roses, berry bushes, garden strawberries. It effectively repels many pests typical for these crops, especially slugs and weevils. But the neighborhood with cabbage, peas, beans is undesirable - garlic inhibits their growth.
Garlic planted on the same bed with garden strawberries effectively scares away slugs from berries - pests do not like a pungent smell
The planting time of spring garlic is determined by the climate in the region. By this time, the soil should warm up to 5–7 ° С. But you can't hesitate too much, otherwise the substrate, saturated with melt water, will have time to dry out. And the culture does not like excessive dryness of the soil, as well as heat. In warm southern regions, planting can be planned as early as the end of March, in areas with a temperate climate - for the last decade of April. In the Urals, Siberia and the Far East, the dates are shifted forward by another 2-3 weeks.
Spring garlic must be planted in moist soil
The bulbs feel comfortable and begin to form roots even at an air temperature of 4–8 ° C. As soon as the weather is stable (above 12-15 ° C), the development of the root system stops, and the formation of the bulb begins. If by this time the plant does not have sufficiently strong roots, it will not be able to provide it with nutrients in the required volume, which will negatively affect the quantity and quality of the crop.
You should not be afraid of returnable spring frosts. The cold hardiness of spring garlic is much less than that of winter garlic, but it will successfully survive small negative temperatures.
Preparation of planting material and planting technology
Getting a good harvest is impossible without high-quality planting material. This is also influenced by the conditions of its storage. The experience of gardeners shows that garlic that has lain at room temperature over the winter takes longer to ripen, but forms larger bulbs. The cloves stored at temperatures close to 0 ° C yield faster harvest, but the heads are small.
For planting, cloves are suitable without mechanical damage and dents, with elastic pulp, weighing 3–6 g. Those that show the slightest suspicious traces resembling symptoms of disease and pests are immediately rejected. Although smaller ones will do. They can be placed in the aisles of other beds to repel pests. They will go to greens. It is not recommended to select heads with a small number of teeth for planting. This is already a degenerating garlic, it will definitely not give a good harvest.
Planting material must be chosen very meticulously, the volume and quality of the future harvest depends on it.
To wake up the planting material, whole heads are placed in the refrigerator 2 months before disembarkation for two or three days, wrapped in a damp linen napkin or gauze. As it dries, the fabric will need to be moistened periodically. The larger the head, the longer it is kept in the cold.
Some gardeners instead practice heating the garlic for 8-10 hours in hot (40-45 ° C) water or germinating it (place it in a plastic bag, wrapped in a damp cloth, and leave it on a sunny windowsill). The heads are disassembled into separate cloves no earlier than a day before disembarkation, so that the bottom does not have time to dry. Only dry husks are removed from the outside, without damaging the inner shell.
Decontamination is carried out 10-12 hours before disembarkation. Spring garlic cloves are immersed in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate or 1% copper sulfate for 2-3 hours. Also, for these purposes, you can use an infusion of wood ash or a solution of sodium chloride (10 g / l). And for the prevention of fungal diseases, any copper-containing preparations are useful - fungicides (Fitoverm, Kuprozan, Horus, Skor, Abiga-Peak). To accelerate the germination process, biostimulants are used - Kornevin, Zircon, Epin.
Potassium permanganate solution is one of the most common disinfectants
Video: preparing garlic for planting
Garlic is planted with an interval between rows of 25–30 cm. The optimum furrow depth is 3–4 cm. With greater depth, the plant develops more slowly. The denticles are placed every 8–12 cm, bottom down. The larger they are, the more space is left between future bulbs. It is not recommended to press them into the soil and tamp the substrate after planting, you can damage the planting material. If the groundwater comes close to the soil surface, it is advisable to raise the bed by 15–20 cm.
The interval between adjacent teeth during planting depends on their size
From above, the furrows are covered with a mixture of humus and peat chips, mulched with dry leaves, sawdust, straw, creating a layer 2-3 cm thick. Mass seedlings can be expected in 10-12 days.
Spring garlic shoots appear quite quickly and amicably
Video: planting spring garlic in the ground
Spring garlic care
Garlic is a relatively unpretentious crop, but you won't be able to get a bountiful harvest without spending at least a little time and effort on the beds. At a minimum, the gardener will need to regularly weed and loosen the soil. Weeds easily choke spring garlic, taking away the necessary nutrition from it. Correct watering and timely fertilization are no less important for the culture.
Intensive soil moisture is required for spring garlic only at the initial stage of development, when the leaves are actively growing. The plant immediately reports a moisture deficit - their tips turn yellow and dry. On average, one watering is sufficient for 4–5 days. Consumption rate - 10-12 l / m².
Watering the garlic during the active growing season is gradually reduced, gradually fading away
When the bulbs have already begun to form, the substrate is watered very moderately, and if it is rainy, cool weather, it is not watered at all. Excess moisture at this time can lead to their heating, the development of pathogenic fungi.
Three weeks before the approximate ripening date of the garlic, watering is stopped completely. Otherwise, the teeth will become watery. This negatively affects both taste and keeping quality.
The root system of spring garlic is weak compared to winter; it is not able to draw out enough nutrients from the soil to form large bulbs, so the plants need large doses of fertilizers.
The first time feeding is applied when the height of the leaves reaches 4–5 cm. For the active formation of the green mass, garlic needs nitrogen. It is watered with a solution of urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate (12-15 g per 10 l of water). A natural source of nitrogen is fresh bird droppings or cow dung. But in its pure form, it is strictly forbidden to introduce it into the soil - the roots will immediately burn out. Instead, an infusion is prepared by pouring 2-3 liters of raw materials in a bucket of water and leaving for several days in a warm place under a tightly closed lid. Before use, it is filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 8 or 1:15, respectively, for manure and droppings.
Urea is one of the most popular nitrogen-containing fertilizers
Excess nitrogen in the soil is harmful for garlic. This weakens his immune system. The plant begins to fatten, forming a lush rosette of leaves to the detriment of the bulbs.
The following dressings are phosphorus-potassium. These fertilizers begin to be applied from the moment the head is formed. Sufficiently 2-3 times during the growing season at approximately equal intervals. The latter is about a month before the harvest ripens. If you overdo it with these fertilizers, the cloves will crack. Garlic is watered with potassium sulfate and superphosphate solutions (8-10 g per 10 l of water). A natural alternative is an infusion of sifted wood ash. A liter can of raw materials is poured with 5 liters of boiling water, insisted for 8-10 hours, filtered before use.
Wood ash - a natural source of potassium and phosphorus
There are also special complex fertilizers for this crop. But first study the composition. Garlic is tolerant to chlorine and its compounds, they accumulate in the pulp.
When choosing a fertilizer for garlic, make sure that there is no chlorine in the composition.
If the development of spring garlic is clearly too slow, you can feed it with natural organic matter - a solution of vermicompost, infusion of nettle greens, dandelion.
Diseases, pests, other problems
Despite the fact that garlic effectively repels pests from other horticultural crops and is a natural source of phytoncides, it itself is by no means immune from diseases and insect attacks. The best preventive measure in this case is competent agricultural technology.
Of the diseases for spring garlic, the most typical are:
- Rust. The first symptom is narrow, yellowish streaks on the leaves. Gradually, they become wider, turning into slightly convex rounded spots, changing color to reddish-orange.
Rust fungus affects almost all horticultural crops; garlic is no exception
- Peronosporosis (downy mildew). In a humid climate, the disease develops very quickly, but the fungus does not like heat and drought very much. The development of the plant slows down, the leaves, starting from the topmost ones, turn pale, turn yellow and deform.
Favorable conditions for the development of downy mildew - high humidity and low air temperature
- Fusarium. The problem is most typical for hot southern regions. Although areas with a temperate climate are not immune from it, if the summer turns out to be successful in terms of weather. Leaves, starting from the tips, quickly turn yellow and dry, covered with thin brownish strokes. In the sinuses, a yellowish-pinkish plaque, similar to mold, forms. The heads are the last to suffer - the teeth soften, become covered with the same mold.
Fusarium garlic can infect crops both during the active growing season and after storage.
- Bacteriosis (bacterial rot). It can affect spring garlic both in the garden and during storage. Small brownish-yellow sores appear on the teeth, gradually increasing in size. The pulp becomes transparent, eventually turning into a cloudy mucus with an unpleasant putrid odor.
Garlic bacterial rot that develops during storage can destroy almost the entire crop very quickly.
- White rot. The leaves turn yellow, a whitish bloom similar to cotton wool appears on the heads. The denticles become as if glassy, quickly rot.
It is impossible to get rid of the white rot of garlic with modern means.
There are currently no cures for bacterial diseases. Therefore, infected specimens must be removed from the garden as soon as possible and burned by disinfecting the soil with a saturated pink solution of potassium permanganate or 5% Bordeaux liquid.
Any fungicide is effective against fungi. It is advisable to choose drugs of biological origin (Alirin-B, Topaz, Bayleton, Maxim, Previkur), they are safe for human health and the environment. The first treatment is carried out, having noticed the characteristic symptoms, then another one, with an interval of 7-10 days. Plants are sprayed with a solution of the drug, the soil is shed. For prophylaxis, after the first shoots appear, every 1.5–2 weeks it is useful to process spring garlic with folk remedies - a solution of soda ash, kefir or serum diluted with water, diluted iodine.
Pests also do not bypass the culture:
- Onion fly. The larvae eat out the newly formed, still soft teeth from the inside. They rot quickly. The plant withers, dries gradually. To scare off the pest, it is useful to alternate planting of garlic and carrots, dust the soil in the garden with mustard powder, ground red pepper, and tobacco crumbs. To combat the onion fly, Decis, Inta-Vir, Iskra-Bio are used.
Planting garlic and carrots next to it is a very good solution; garlic repels carrot flies, carrots - onions
- Garlic nematode. A thin filamentous worm penetrates the roots and gradually moves up the stem, laying eggs in the tissues. Leaves are covered with yellowish-brown spots, curl. It is very difficult to get rid of a pest. For prophylaxis, the garden bed is spilled with saline solution (5-7 g / l) before planting and 2-3 times during the growing season. In the spring, Nemabact granules are added to the soil. After harvesting, Thiofos is spilled.
It is extremely difficult to get rid of the nematode, the eggs of the pest in the soil remain viable for up to five years
- Onion (root) tick. It penetrates into the bulbs through the bottom, literally grinding it down to a state of whitish dust, then eats out the cloves from the inside. The heads rot, the plant dies. For prevention, the garden bed is watered with infusion of tansy and yarrow every 1.5–2 weeks. To get rid of a tick, special preparations are used - acaricides (Neoron, Omite, Apollo).
The onion mite is not an insect, therefore, special preparations are used to combat it - acaricides
Video: ways to combat onion fly
A common problem is yellowing garlic leaves. This is a common symptom for many diseases. But it can also testify to individual flaws in agricultural technology, in particular, to the deficiency of macro- and microelements, moisture in the soil. In the same way, the plant responds to planting in a substrate of unsuitable quality.
Harvesting and storage
The fact that spring garlic has already ripened is evidenced by massive yellowing and lodging of leaves, softening of the root collar. The approximate date is the end of August or the beginning of September. It is impossible to hesitate in harvesting. The quality of such garlic deteriorates greatly - the heads fall apart into separate cloves, the skin cracks, the bottom sprouts. Even being late for 2-3 days is critical.
Garlic harvested from the garden must be dried well
You can speed up the ripening time of the crop a little by redirecting almost all the nutrients to the bulbs:
- Tie the leaves into a knot.
- Mulch the soil. So it heats up less, and the active growth of the head takes place precisely at a lower soil temperature.
- Carefully insert a sharp knife with a long blade under the head and lightly trim the roots at a depth of 3-5 cm. The procedure requires a certain skill, otherwise it is very easy to damage the bulb.
To the leaves of garlic, tied in a knot, nutrients can no longer flow in the same volume, so they are redirected to the bulb
For harvesting, they choose a sunny, cool day. To minimize mechanical damage, the garlic is dug out with a pitchfork. Then it must be dried in the fresh air for 5-7 days. The heads are placed under a canopy to protect them from possible precipitation. Direct sunlight also has a negative effect on them.
Dry bulbs are cleaned of adhering soil, their roots and leaves are cut, leaving 2–3 and 8–10 cm, respectively. Spring garlic is sorted out, discarding heads damaged by fungi, viruses, insects.
Video: recommendations for harvesting and storing garlic
The culture is picky about storage conditions. But they will definitely affect the future harvest. Spring garlic shows good shelf life both at room temperature and at temperatures close to 0 ° C. It is only necessary that the place is dry and well ventilated.
Garlic does not require special storage conditions, it will suit both the apartment and the cellar
Garlic can be stored in cardboard boxes, wooden and plastic boxes, baskets with ventilation holes, sprinkled with straw, sawdust, and scraps of newsprint. To save space, they collect it in bunches, put it in old nylon tights or linen bags, weave braids, hanging them from the ceiling. Bulbs are well stored if individually wrapped in plastic wrap or dipped in molten paraffin.
Garlic braids can be turned into an original decoration of the kitchen interior
Peeled cloves are also suitable for storage. They are placed in opaque glass or wooden containers, sprinkled with flour sifted with wood ash. And if you use salt or fill them with any vegetable oil, you can flavor the product at the same time. This oil, for example, is very good as a salad dressing.
Storing garlic in oil is both practical and beneficial.
When there is not much garlic, just place the cloves in a special plastic bag with a sealed zipper and put it in the refrigerator (compartment for fruits and vegetables).
Growing garlic, both winter and spring, is within the power of even a novice gardener. Each of the varieties of culture has its own timing of planting, harvesting and the nuances of care, which you need to familiarize yourself with in advance. Do not forget about the prevention of diseases - contrary to popular belief, garlic has its characteristic diseases and pests that attack it. An important point is the choice of the variety. It depends primarily on the region of cultivation, but there are other determining factors.
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The herbaceous perennial plant garlic (allium sativum) is a species belonging to the genus Onion of the Amaryllidaceae family. His homeland is Central Asia. It was first cultivated in the mountains of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, in the northern part of Iran, in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Scientists have proven that garlic originated from long-pointed onions. Garlic is popular in all countries, appreciated for its pungent taste and unusual pungent odor. However, it is popular not only among cooks, it is also used in medicine, since it has long been known that this plant has healing properties.
Features of growing garlic
The entire growing process cannot be called complicated, but it will require creating all the necessary conditions for high-quality growth and development of fruits.
It is very important for garlic to be on fertile soil, neutral in acidity (for example, loamy or sandy loam). The whole process of crop development and the abundance of crops in the future depends on the composition of the soil.
Garlic beds should be located in a well-lit area, as the plant is very light-loving. It is good if the garlic grows on a separate plot of land, but it will also accept the neighborhood with other crops positively. Basically, all vegetables, as well as flowers, can be planted next to this fragrant neighbor.
Plants such as onions, tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, as well as berries (black and red currants, strawberries and strawberries) and flowers (tulips, all varieties of roses and gladioli) grow beautifully next to garlic. The fact is that the pungent garlic aroma acts as a deterrent against various pests and diseases. For example, such beautiful flowers as roses can be protected from black spots with the help of garlic scent. Vegetable crops will not be afraid of invasions of slugs, borers and numerous caterpillars. But the root crops will be protected from the arrival of the mole.
It is not recommended to plant garlic near cabbage, peas, beans and other legumes. The growth and development of these plants will be slower and the quality of the crop will be low.
Growing and caring for garlic outdoors
Growing the best harvest of garlic outdoors
Before planting garlic, a growing method should be selected, which may depend on varietal characteristics or desired harvest time. In the future, garlic, cultivation and care in the open field for which it is correctly performed, will thank you with a generous and large harvest.
Winter and spring varieties of garlic
The varietal variety of garlic is quite large, since the varieties are divided into two groups, differing in the cultivation method and planting dates:
- Winter crops (shooting and non-shooting)
- Spring (non-shooting).
They are characterized by larger heads and early ripening. Basically, the cultivation of winter garlic in the open field is carried out for consumption and use in cooking, since it is poorly stored.
Winter garlic variety - Lyubasha
Shooting varieties ripen faster than non-shooting varieties, but require additional labor to break arrows. Among the most popular winter varieties are:
- Zubrenok is a fruitful shooting variety with large heads.
- Alcor is a common variety among gardeners. Medium bulbs. The scales of the teeth are pink-violet.
- Lyubasha is a shooting variety with high juicy tops and large flattened bulbs.
- Herman is the most stable of winter garlic varieties with multi-toothed, medium-sized heads.
- The doctor is a non-shooting variety of medium ripening periods. The heads include up to sixteen teeth, transportable.
Spring garlic varieties do not produce arrows. The teeth of the head are formed in several rows, and the outer ones are always larger and are recommended for further planting. Spring garlic, planting and care in open ground, which differs from winter garlic, has smaller bulbs in comparison with them, but it is stored much longer (up to a new harvest).
Spring Garlic Victorio
- Moskovsky is a large-fruited variety with white heads.
- Gulliver - characterized by dense flattened white heads and keeping quality up to 8 months.
- Victorio is highly resistant to disease. The denticles are yellowish in color. The heads are round, medium in size.
Preparing the beds for planting garlic
The opinion that garlic will grow everywhere is wrong. Large yields are possible only if the area for growing winter garlic or spring varieties is chosen correctly.
Preparation and fertilization of ash soil for garlic from autumn
- Choose a flat, sunny area.Garlic planted in the lowlands will get wet and rot. Its keeping quality is sharply reduced. In the shade, the vegetable will develop poorly and grow bulbs.
- Fertile and moisture-consuming soil is suitable, garlic loves loams, and soils oversaturated with organic matter.
Crop rotation rules for garlic
- It is undesirable to grow garlic after onions, cucumbers, carrots, tomatoes. The most suitable for garlic will be the beds on which grew cabbage, potatoes, legumes, or green manure plants.
Garlic is a welcome neighbor for strawberries, strawberries, raspberries, roses, gooseberries and currants.
It will scare away pests (slugs, borers, caterpillars and moles) from these crops, while developing well and forming a good harvest.
You can grow garlic on one bed for no more than two years in a row. In the future, this area can be returned to garlic only after four years.
Preparing the beds for garlic
The beds should be prepared in advance, digging them up in the fall and mulching with weeds. In the spring, in advance (at least two weeks in advance), you need to dig up the garlic bed on a shovel bayonet and add humus (bucket / m²), superphosphate (30g / m²), potassium salt (20 g / m²).
- If the acidity of the soil is increased, be sure to add lime, chalk or dolomite flour of your choice for deoxidation
- When the soil is washed out and depleted, you should regularly water the beds with an ash solution, as well as dust the beds before digging in the spring and sprinkle abundantly with ash during autumn preparation.
Methods and timing of planting garlic
Garlic is a seedless vegetable. It reproduces only vegetatively - by cloves or air bulbs formed on the arrows. Therefore, his landing and preparation for it are different.
Bulbs or bulbs (other names - garlic seeds, air seeds, air bulbs) are called organs of vegetative reproduction - small bulbs, which by definition are not seeds. But the air capsule (has the second name - the seed case) on the arrow of the garlic, in which they grow, is called the seed.
Preparing garlic for outdoor planting
To ensure that the harvest does not disappoint you, the garlic cloves need to be properly prepared for planting.
- The heads are sorted, choosing the largest ones, and discarding the damaged ones. Even if one tooth with signs of infection is found in the head, the rest are also not suitable for planting.
- Treat the planting material with "Fitosporin" (soak the garlic for 5 minutes) to prevent fungal diseases. Soaking in a pink solution of potassium permanganate or 1% iodine is possible.
- Apply pre-sowing fertilization by dipping the teeth into the ash slurry (pour 0.5 liters of ash into 1 liter of water and boil for 30 minutes). In the future, caring for winter garlic prepared in this way will be easier.
It is necessary to divide the heads of garlic into teeth just before planting. Otherwise, the bottom of the bulbs will dry out and the root system will not develop. It is better to remove the upper husk, since it is in it that pathogens and infections accumulate.
For planting before winter, the garlic cloves must be well dried. Otherwise, it will start to germinate prematurely and will be damaged by frost.
Planting winter garlic
Winter garlic is planted in the fall, 25-30 days before the onset of stable cold weather. Usually this period falls on the end of September - mid-October. During this time, the teeth will root well, but will not have time to start growing.
- With an earlier fall planting, garlic will begin to grow, which is fraught with frost damage to the tops and a decrease in yield.
- If it is late, the teeth will not root until the onset of cold weather and will freeze in winter.
Planting winter garlic outdoors
Garlic is planted in open ground in rows according to the scheme: row spacing - 20-25 cm, distance in a row - 8-10 cm.The teeth are stuck into the prepared grooves with the bottom down to a depth of about 5 cm.
The bottom of the groove should be loose so that the roots can penetrate deeply without hindrance. On light sandy and sandy loam soils, it is possible to plant garlic to a depth of 12 cm. There is no need to water the plantings.
When all the tines are planted, the bed is leveled with a rake and mulched with peat. Branches or spruce branches are laid on top. They will keep snow and winter garlic, planting and caring for which were initially carried out according to all the rules, will successfully overwinter.
How to plant winter garlic: growing and care, video
Landing air bulbs
The balloon planting method is used for a two-year crop cycle. This planting of winter garlic has several advantages:
- Healthy planting material. They do not come into contact with the ground, so they are not susceptible to infection by harmful bacteria.
- Saving. The best and most significant part of the garlic harvest is allocated for planting with tines.
Garlic boxes with air bulbs for planting
The air bulbs are planted in the same way as the prongs of winter garlic. In the first year, heads will grow from them into one clove for further planting, in the second - full-fledged bulbs.
Planting "air seeds" and growing garlic in the open field video
Planting spring garlic
Spring garlic is planted in the beds in early spring (early April), as soon as the snow melts, so the preparation of the site should be taken care of in the fall. It is not worth waiting for the soil to mature for comfortable work. The earlier the garlic is planted, the greater the harvest will be.
It is advisable to arrange the rows in the south-north direction so that the plants are evenly illuminated. In this case, the planting of garlic in the spring is carried out according to the same scheme as for the winter one (8-10 cm in a row, row spacing 20-25 cm).
In the spring, garlic is one of the first in the garden to grow. In order for the harvest of garlic to be generous, the plantings must be given due attention. The care of garlic in the open field is reduced to timely feeding and regular watering.
Growing garlic outdoors
Garlic care in spring
When the first 2-3 leaves of garlic appear, the soil in the aisles must be loosened, and then mulched with peat or humus. Watering the plants begins as soon as the earth dries up. In this case, watering should be abundant (10 l / m²) and regular (once a week).
Lack of moisture negatively affects the harvest - the bulbs become smaller or do not form at all. After each watering, it is imperative to loosen the soil in the garden.
Rules for watering garlic in spring
In the spring, the following fertilizers are applied:
- In the phase of 3-4 leaves - urea solution (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). Fertilizer is poured over garlic from a watering can (by sprinkling)
- Two weeks later, a solution of nitrophoska or nitroammofoska (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) is added under the garlic.
When applying dressings in the spring, you need to remember that nitrogen-containing fertilizers are needed for garlic only in the initial phase of growth. Later, phosphorus-potassium supplements are needed. Lack of nutrients can cause premature yellowing of garlic leaves.
For garlic, which is properly cared for, fresh manure, as well as a large amount of other nitrogen fertilizers, must not be applied. This will cause violent growth of the green mass at the expense of bulb formation.
In summer, watering of garlic is gradually reduced, and completely stopped at the end of June (2-3 weeks before harvest). Garlic care in June includes the last dressing. To do this, dilute 2 tbsp in 10 liters of water. superphosphate and water the garden with this solution.
Winter garlic with arrows
Taking care of garlic in July is necessary, when the arrows of winter garlic reach a height of 10 cm, they are broken out. So the plant will not expend energy on ripening "babies" and the bulbs will be larger.
For the propagation of garlic with air bulbs, it is enough to leave arrows on several plants. The rest of the technology for growing winter garlic and spring garlic is the same.
Protecting garlic from diseases and pests
Garlic is often exposed to fungal diseases, such as:
- bacterial rot
- white rot
- black mold.
It is quite difficult to deal with them and spraying with fungicides (Bordeaux liquid, Fitosporin, etc.) does not always give the desired result. It is easier and more effective to prevent the development of these diseases by etching the teeth before planting and observing crop rotation.
Garlic yellowing problem
No less harm is caused by pests that complicate both the cultivation of winter garlic and spring garlic. The most dangerous of them are:
- stem nematode
- onion fly.
To combat the nematode, preventive measures are used. Deep digging of the site, destruction of plant debris, planting chicory and calendula on the site will help.
To combat onion flies, root and garlic mites, as well as onion hoverflies, special solutions are used.
Onion fly remedy recipe
Pour a glass of tobacco dust and a few teaspoons of ground pepper with 2-3 liters of boiling water and insist warm for 3 days. Strain the infusion and dilute with water to 10 liters, then sprinkle with garlic. Such spraying should be carried out every 10-14 days.
Cleaning garlic from the beds
The harvest time is different for different varieties of garlic. Basically, harvesting begins in July, but it is better to determine readiness more accurately by yellowed lower leaves and by ripe and opened air capsules with bulbs. It is not worth pulling with the harvesting of garlic until the foliage dies completely. In this case, the heads will disintegrate and poorly stored.
Harvesting outdoor garlic
Dig up garlic only in dry weather. Extracted from moist soil, it will not be stored and will rot quickly. When harvesting, you need to try to damage the roots as little as possible.
With proper preparation of the beds and adherence to planting technology, growing garlic in the open field will only bring pleasure, the plant will be healthy, and the harvest will delight you with an abundance.
To preserve the garlic for the winter, the dug out bulbs are hung or laid out to dry in a dry, shaded place. The roots are cut from completely dry bulbs and stored as such.