Miscellanea

How to tie up raspberries correctly and should you do it?

 How to tie up raspberries correctly and should you do it?


The varieties of red and yellow raspberries familiar to everyone have very flexible shoots, and if the gardener does not understand how to tie up raspberries, broken stems cannot be avoided. A bountiful harvest of berries, leaves wet from rain and strong gusts of wind can easily lead to breakage of the shoot at the very base.

How to tie raspberries to stakes or posts?

Raspberry photo

In autumn, the gardener has a lot of worries without raspberries, therefore, most often, ordinary wooden stakes, metal pipes or reinforced concrete pillars up to two meters high and about five centimeters in diameter are used to tie the shoots. Such supports are installed in the middle of the bush, and the stems are tied to them in a bundle of six pieces at a one and a half meter height. The tops of longer shoots are bent in an arc, fixing at the same level.

This method has its drawbacks:

  • Shoots in bunches receive uneven illumination;
  • berries inside the bush are tied worse and develop more slowly;
  • fruit branches break;
  • due to the large crowding of shoots, raspberries are more susceptible to diseases.

Video about caring for raspberries

A more successful way is considered raspberry fan garter, in which the supports are not installed in the center of the bushes, but between them. At the same time, half of the shoots of one bush and half of the other are tied to the support, distributing them with a fan. So it is possible to achieve good illumination of the stems, it becomes more convenient to pick berries, and the annual shoots do not break, as they grow vertically in the middle of the bush.

To tie the shoots, you can use polyethylene bands or twine. If you do not cut the garter material when attaching the stems to the wire, the garter process will speed up noticeably.

How to tie raspberries to a trellis correctly?

If the above methods are more suitable for single raspberry bushes growing in different corners of the site, then for raspberries planted in even rows, it will be more convenient to use trellises.

The simple construction of taut wire posts has many advantages, as evidenced by the widespread cultivation of cucumbers on a trellis. Raspberry shoots, attached to the trellis, are not afraid of the winter wind, rarely get sick and give an excellent harvest due to uniform illumination. However, the berries should be picked carefully, as young stems break very easily.

Raspberry garter to the trellis

The most popular is single trellis in the form of a pair of two-meter supports, installed at a distance of three meters, between which two or three rows of strong steel wire are stretched. Each fruiting raspberry shoot is tied to a wire separately. In this case, the tops of the shoots should not rise above the wire by more than 20 cm, otherwise they should be bent and also tied up.

Novice gardeners can easily build and double trellisby pulling two parallel wires between the posts at a height of one and a half meters and placing raspberry stalks between them. Just remember to staple the two strands of wire with staples every one and a half meters so that they do not diverge too much.

It is worth noting that the trellis can be vertical or inclined. In the second case, a transverse crossbar up to half a meter long is attached to each post at a height of 1.2 m, two strands of wire are tied to its ends. With this method, fruiting stems are tied at an angle, and young shoots grow in the middle of the row and do not interfere with picking berries.

Is it possible to do without a raspberry garter?

However, if you wish, you can get good harvests of red and yellow raspberries every year without a garter of shoots. To do this, you just need to plant on the site those varieties that are distinguished by thick upright stems. The following varieties of raspberries are not afraid of the severity of the berries: Ruby Bulgarian, Coral, Spirina white, Balm, Shy.

Video about the correct raspberry garter

To achieve the desired result, the raspberries are allowed to grow freely in the first year after planting. By the end of the season, the stems form a dense row up to 70 cm wide, a kind of hedge. The next year, all shoots that go beyond the specified width are cut out, and the bushes are also thinned out, leaving 20 cm between the stems.

Despite the good yield, raspberries with such cultivation are more often exposed to fungal diseases, and the fruiting shoots in the middle of a dense row die prematurely due to strong thickening. Therefore, growing raspberries without tying is still undesirable.


Different options for do-it-yourself tomato trellis (with photo and video)

You can assemble convenient trellis for tomatoes with your own hands (photo in Fig. 1) not only in the greenhouse, but also in the garden bed. The use of such a support is suitable not only for tall varieties of tomatoes. Bushes of medium height - up to 1-1.5 m - will also feel great when suspended.

What can you make a trellis from?

The simplest tomato support can be made from poles of sufficient length. Such a building will not look particularly aesthetically pleasing, but it will fully fulfill its functions. To make a trellis that can last for several years and decorate your garden, you will need to purchase some materials from the store:

  • metal pipes or bar 5 × 5 cm
  • wire, nylon cord
  • special plastic mesh with a large mesh.

You will need a shovel to dig in the support posts. In addition to the above, a hammer and nails may come in handy.

It is best to arrange a trellis with the expectation of long-term use, especially when the site is small. By replacing tomatoes annually with cucumbers or legumes, crop rotation can also be observed. Having built several rows of supports for plants in the garden, it will be possible to significantly save space and ensure the desired ease of caring for the tied plants. Correctly formed and fixed, they will not fall into the aisles, the fruits will always remain clean, and collecting them will only bring pleasure.

How to build a trellis for open ground?

One of the support options is shown in the photo (Fig. 2). To make a simple trellis from poles, you need to stick them into the soil at an angle and tie in pairs, crossing the upper ends. Place another stick in the fork. Attach the cords to the horizontal pole. It is better to plant tall tomatoes in 1 row and form into 1-2 stems, carefully removing all stepsons afterwards. Medium-sized tomatoes can be placed on either side of the central pole and tied to obliquely stretched cords.

To make the garden look beautiful, it is better to spend a little time and money building trellises from a bar or pipes. Such supports will be strong enough, they can be used for different crops that need support. It is best to make the trellis at least 2 m high. This will allow tall tomatoes, cucumbers or peas to be planted near her in subsequent years.

To the height above the ground, add the depth to which the bar or pipe will be dug. On soils of medium density and clay, 50-60 cm will be enough for the supports to withstand the total weight of the plants, even in case of strong winds. On sandy soils, the digging depth of the support pillars should be increased to 1 m.

The number of supports depends on the length of the ridge. It is advisable not to leave a distance of more than 2 m between the posts, since a stretched mesh or cord can sag under the weight of the green mass of tomatoes. Cut the prepared material for the posts into pieces of the required length, dig holes for their installation. When installing the supports, you can fill the pit with fragments of bricks, large rubble to ensure their stability, or just carefully compact the previously removed soil around the posts.

After the pillars are installed, you can act in different ways (Fig. 3):

  1. Nail on top of a horizontal bar on which to tie the cords. Plant tomatoes in 1 or 2 rows (photo above).
  2. Pull several horizontal rows of cord or wire over the supports (bottom left). As the bushes grow, they can be tied to the thread located above.
  3. Fasten the plastic mesh between the posts (bottom right). Tomatoes can be tied directly to the cells.

When tying tomatoes, you need to use soft material, since the juicy stems break easily. Ribbons made from rags or used plastic bags are very convenient.

If frosts often occur in the region where the gardener lives, then growing tomatoes on a trellis in the open field becomes a necessity. Try to build a universal transformer support (Fig. 4). 3-4 rows of crossbars must be attached to the support posts. For a metal structure, it is convenient to use a corner and brackets with bolts, as in the diagram. Drill holes in the corner.

If wooden bars are used for posts and crossbars, then fastening is carried out on nails or self-tapping screws of sufficient length. At the ends of the crossbars, pull the horizontal cords tightly for tying bushes and hanging film, if necessary.

At the beginning of the season, such a support can serve as a greenhouse for tomato seedlings or to protect young plants in case of a cold snap. Closer to autumn, the gardener can slightly extend the growing season of the plants by pulling the covering material over the uppermost cords. In this case, the trellis is transformed into a greenhouse where tomatoes are ripened.

Do-it-yourself tapestry (video)

Varieties of trellises for closed ground

When growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, they are most often used specially designed for this variety. Most of them are tall - bushes can reach a length of 2 m or more. Such plants need a garter.

Usually inside the greenhouse, gardeners install supports on which a horizontal bar or wire is fixed. Pieces of cord are tied to such a primitive trellis, on which the stems of the tomatoes will subsequently be fixed. How to do it correctly is shown in detail by the instruction in video 1.

If you slightly improve the design of a simple trellis in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you can build a moving support (Fig. 5). It allows you to conveniently place even very tall tomatoes without pinching their top when you reach the top bar. In this way, you can get a larger yield, if weather conditions permit. In addition, the load on the plant stem during the setting and active growth of fruits in its lower part is significantly reduced. Tomatoes laid on the net ripen and remain healthy, as they do not have contact with the ground.

The mobile trellis is based on the usual design for a greenhouse: posts and a crossbar fixed to them under the ceiling. At the bottom of the support pillars, at a height of about 70 cm from the ground, you need to install crossbars to fasten the mesh. The mesh bed is horizontal.

Hang the hooks with the twine attached to them on the upper crossbar. The length of the thread should be much longer than the height of the trellis. For the initial stage of growing tomatoes, the twine is tied so that its length matches the height at which the hook is located. The knot should come loose easily. Excess twine can be folded up and the roll can be attached to the hook.

As the tomatoes grow, the knot is untied, part of the twine is released from the skein, and it is fixed again. At the same time, the stem is obliquely laid on a mesh bed, and the hook is slightly moved. The same procedure is done with the next bush. As a result, the distance between the stems remains the same, the fruits are placed in the net without pulling down the tied part of the stem. When the top of the bush reaches the crossbar, the procedure for lowering part of the stem is repeated, giving the plant the opportunity to continue growing.

Using trellis of different designs in the garden and in the greenhouse, you can significantly save space by making the aisles narrower. When the tomato bushes are arranged in a vertical direction, the gardener will be able to collect ripening fruits in time, it is easy to remove stepchildren and extra leaves.Due to the free access of air, even in the lower tiers there are no conditions for the development of phytophthora and other fungi.

Tomatoes on a trellis (video)


Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

Current page: 6 (total of the book has 22 pages) [available passage for reading: 8 pages]

Black currant

183. Why do flowers and even berries dry out on some branches of black currant?

This can happen not only with black, but also with red currants and gooseberries. If you cut such a branch, you will see that it has a black core. This trace was left by a glass caterpillar. Such a branch should be cut to the ground without leaving a hemp. The flight of the glassware coincides in time with the cherry blossoms. It is at this moment that the processing of berry bushes should be carried out. Usually karbofos or "Fufanon" is recommended. But it is better to simply disorient the pest by adding an extraneous pungent smell to the smell of the host plant, for example, by spraying the plants with coniferous extract or infusion of coniferous needles, infusion of wormwood, tansy, onion husks, citrus peel. You should not leave on the site or near it a real bird cherry, which attracts the glass. But virgin, Chinese red or hybrids of bird cherry with cherry - you can.

184. What to do with a currant scabbard?

The scale insect (small comma-shaped bulges, usually beige) can inhabit not only currants, but also any other plant. Peeling it off the bark is a tedious and thankless task. It is necessary to spread a newspaper under the bush, then collect the scale insects and burn, otherwise they will again crawl from the soil onto the branches. In no case should you treat the bush with white spirit, as it is sometimes recommended, - you will simply ruin the branches. But since the scale insect is a sucking insect, then by spraying the bush with an absorbed preparation, you can destroy it. You can use the chemical "Fosbecid", biological products "Iskra-bio", "Agravertin" or "Fitoferm". External drugs, such as "Inta-vir" or "Decis", "Sherpa" and others, do not work, since the scabbard has a strong chitinous cover.

185. They began to harvest black currants, and the bushes are full of some kind of cobweb nests with dried berries. What it is?

You missed the flight of the gooseberry moth that occurs during flowering. Caterpillars lay eggs in a flower, the hatching larva eats it up and moves on to the next one. So one larva damages up to 10-15 berries. Then it pupates right there, braiding the brush with a cobweb. In autumn, it falls with a brush on the soil and hibernates under fallen leaves. During berry picking, spider nests (clusters of dried berries) should be picked separately and then destroyed. In the same way, the moth affects the gooseberry.

The simplest measure is to huddle gooseberry and black currant bushes in late autumn, and to unroll them in early spring. If you have not done this, then spray the bushes before flowering with karbofos, or scare the pests with infusion of needles, citrus peels and others. At any time, you can spray plants against pests with biological products (Iskra-bio, Fitoverm, Agravertin). Two days after spraying, the berries can be eaten.

186. What kind of orange warts appear on currant leaves in early June?

This fungal disease is goblet rust (if the tubercles are large) or columnar (if the specks are small). It can be stopped by spraying the bushes with Bordeaux liquid or Hom, but you can also do with Fitosporin.

187. What time is it necessary to destroy the kidney mite on black currant?

Before the buds burst and the stray mites spread out to invade new buds.

The easiest way to harvest the thick, swollen buds is in late fall or early spring when the bushes have no leaves. Then they are very clearly visible. No need to throw the kidneys anywhere, they should be burned. Sometimes, if there are a lot of ticks, you have to cut out whole branches and even part of the bush. If urgent action is not taken, the bush will die. You can make a cover of the film over the bush, tie the ends of the film under the bush, insert a sulfur checker inside (for example, "Climate") and set it on fire.After an hour, the bush can be freed from the film. Not only the tick will die, but also other pests that will be on the bush at this time, and at the same time the pathogens. You just need to remember that sulfur fumigation is effective only at high (above 20 ° C) temperatures.

188. How to determine if a black currant bush is sick with terry?

During flowering, bushes or individual branches immediately catch the eye, on which, instead of flowers with white rounded petals, strange, elongated, purple flowers appeared. The whole bush must be dug up and burned immediately. If you change the soil, you can plant a new bush or black currant stalk in this place (you cannot take a stalk from a diseased bush).

189. Flowers on black currants suddenly became ugly, dirty pink in color. What caused this?

This is a mycoplasma disease that is quite common in garden plots - currant terry. Sick black currant bushes are easy to spot during flowering: the flowers degenerate, become narrow, with fused petals of a dirty pink or purple color. Cutting off flowers or cutting off a branch with such flowers will not solve the problem, because the whole bush is sick and sooner or later it will manifest itself, you must immediately dig it up and burn it until the gall midges and ticks carry the infection further.

190. What is golden currant?

There is an elegant relative of the black currant - the golden currant. It got its name for the petals of flowers, which are yellow. In spring, long clusters of yellow flowers look very elegant. The leaves of this currant are smaller and more rounded. This currant has no pests and is practically not affected by diseases. Everything would be just wonderful, but only she has neither the taste nor the aroma of black currant. Bunches of small, mediocre taste of berries do not give a large harvest. In addition, golden currant is a cross-pollinated plant. So, if you want berries, please plant at least two bushes next to each other. It is usually used as an ornamental shrub, not berry.

191. Which variety to choose for growing black currant near Vyborg (North-West)?

For the North-West, the most suitable and unpretentious variety is Karelian creeping (old Finnish variety Bradthorpe) and, accordingly, the varieties obtained on the basis of the Karelian creeping. All of them differ in that they have a slightly lying shape, the branches are slightly wavy in shape and diverge far to the sides. As soon as the branch lies on the ground, it immediately takes root, so the bush can grow strongly in all directions. Supports should be placed under it. But on the other hand, all these shortcomings atone for fertility, large-fruited, good taste of berries, resistance to diseases and pests, genetic resistance of the variety. It still exists without any pruning and maintenance on the old, abandoned since 1945, Finnish farms. At the same time, it bears excellent fruit.

The Karelian currant always gives a harvest, because the flowering period for it is stretched for almost two weeks, although some of the flowers leave from the spring frosts. In addition, the lower branches bloom and those located in the center of the bush are as abundant as the peripheral ones. The ripening of berries is also stretched out, so the harvest has to be removed in several stages. On the one hand, this is inconvenient for those who sell berries, but, on the other hand, it is very convenient for those who grow crops for themselves and their families. First, the berries can be removed gradually, especially without bothering. Secondly, on the lower branches the harvest is still at the end of August, which makes it possible to cook jelly when there are no longer any berries. This variety has one more advantage - it does not have sepals on the berries, so they are easy to process.

192. We are only suitable for growing early or mid-early varieties of black currant. Which ones to choose?

The early varieties are not a bad variety. Primorsky champion and Seedling of the Dovewing. Medium early varieties include the Belarusian variety Minaj Shmyrev, which has erect, tall bushes, good yield, large tasty berries, but sometimes the variety is affected by ticks. But it is resistant to most diseases, including terry.

193. Does a thorn need a pollinator and which one?

Not needed. This plant is monoecious and self-fertile. On the contrary, the blackthorn can serve as a pollinator for almost all varieties of plums.

194. Why do we need a turn at all?

Firstly, a thorn is a terrible thorn, so you can plant it instead of a hedge. Secondly, the thorn is a wonderful honey plant. Thirdly, it blooms very beautifully, even before the leaves dissolve, so beautifully that you can't take your eyes off. Fourth, as I said, he is an excellent pollinator.

Hop

Bring from the forest. It takes root very well.

196. Where is it recommended to plant hops?

Do not plant it on the site - it is a predator, it will fill the entire district. It should be planted behind a shed, toilet or bathhouse, that is, on waste land, or even better - behind a plot.

197. What are the features of hop care?

Yes, hops won't give you any special trouble, don't worry. Hops prefer partial shade, humus-rich soil. The most important thing is that there is moisture: cover the planting site with a film, and when it grows, that is, vertical shoots from the ground will go, the film will need to be removed. Then he will climb everywhere, so the hops must be planted carefully.

Bird cherry

198. Is it possible to plant bird cherry on the site?

It is not recommended to plant common bird cherry on the site. On the common bird cherry, a glass case overwinters, damaging the black currant. This is a dangerous pest, it is by no means so easy to deal with it. If the bird cherry grows nearby, then every spring, as soon as the cherry begins to bloom and the glass flies on the currant, spray the bushes with infusions with a pungent smell (needles, garlic, tansy, citrus peels) in order to disorient the pest and he does not populate the black currant.

Glass damage manifests itself in the form of drying branches, drying flowers and berries. If you cut off a branch, you will find a black core in it - it has been eaten by a glass caterpillar. Burn the branch, spray the bush systematically with Iskra-Bio or Fitoverm.

199. What kind of bird cherry can be planted on the site?

On the site, you can plant a virgin bird cherry, red Chinese, a hybrid of bird cherry with cherry. The glassware does not hibernate on them, so they do not pose a danger to the garden, and their berries are large and tasty, with a slightly astringent taste.

200. I really like the smell of bird cherry. In which corner of the garden can you plant it?

Bird cherry is shade-tolerant. Any building has a black triangle on the north side, where there is almost never the sun and where little grows, bird cherry can be planted there.

201. It is often said: plant the plants when the bird cherry blossoms. And when does this happen?

Bird cherry blossoms in different places in different ways, and even year after year does not happen ... But in our Leningrad region, according to average statistics, bird cherry blossoms on May 12.

Rosehip

202. Do any rose hips contain vitamins?

Vitamins are found in all fruits that have a red-orange pulp. There are also purely decorative varieties, for example, terry gooseberries or park roses. Their fruits do not have pulp, they are dry gray boxes with seeds, like those of roses. But there are also varieties that contain an increased amount of vitamins and organic acids in fruits. You can buy them in fruit nurseries.

203. How to propagate rose hips?

Rosehip is easily propagated by root shoots, cuttings and even seeds. Enters fruiting quickly.

204. What does the dog rose love?

The plant is completely unpretentious, if it clings to the ground, then it cannot be destroyed by any uprooting. He will certainly appear in the chosen place again. But in general, like roses, rose hips prefers oily, black clays or loams. You can prepare for it a mixture of rotted compost and simple clay in a 1: 1 ratio. But I must say that it will grow even on sand if you add at least a little organic matter to it. The plant is frost-resistant and drought-resistant.Rosehip grows and bears fruit better in sunny places, but it quite tolerates partial shade and even shade. True, it practically does not bloom in the shade.

205. Why are wild rose berries not eaten fresh?

They are not consumed raw because of the hairs in the seed capsule. The fruits are removed until they are soft, dried and boiled with boiling water, making a vitamin drink.

206. How to distinguish the fruits of the wild rose hips from the real, vitamin?

The fruits of real vitamin rose hips can be easily distinguished from those of wild or any other rose hips by the sepals that remain on the fruit. In vitamin varieties, they are directed forward, and in a wild or decorative species, they are bent back (as if lying on the berries).

207. When and how, according to the rules, should a dog rose be planted?

Rosehips, like all shrubs, should be planted in late summer - early autumn, but in practice they take root quite easily in spring and in the first half of summer too. After planting, regular watering is required until the plant takes root.

208. How to feed rose hips?

Top dressing is needed for a plentiful harvest, and a rose hip, planted as a fence, can not be fed or watered. Most of all, fresh manure (as well as for roses) diluted with water 1: 10, or bird droppings diluted with water 1: 20, is suitable for feeding. Top dressing should be given at the beginning of summer. If there is no manure, then sprinkle any organic matter under the bushes around the perimeter of its crown, including not overturned, and, at least, do not remove the foliage dumped in the fall from under it, then it will feed itself.

209. Can a dogrose be used as a hedge?

Sure you may. Rosehip, gradually expanding, forms whole thickets, impassable and thorny, through which it is difficult to wade. But only this hedge should be monitored, the aging stems should be cut to the ground about once every 3-4 years, otherwise your hedge will gradually turn into dead wood.

Apple tree

210. How many years does an apple tree live?

In principle, an apple tree can grow and bear fruit for up to 100 years or more. There are known long-lived apple trees that have lived in this world for 300 years. But in the Northwest, apple trees begin to die, mainly due to the death of the bark, at a young age - 20-25 years.

211. How to choose the right place on the site for planting an apple tree?

First of all, it is necessary to select a place on the site so that the trees are protected from the northern winds. It is better if there are other plants along the northern border, for example, spruces, maples (naturally, outside the boundaries of your site), irga, red rowan trees, sea buckthorn. In the south, in front of the house, you can plant a couple of fruit trees, but the whole garden should not be planted, because in ten years there will be a solid shadow in front of the house, in which only grass will grow well. And our plots are small, and you should not squander the precious area under the sun.

Apple trees can be arranged in 1-2 rows along one of the boundaries of the plot (but not from the south!), Stepping back from the border of the neighboring plot, as expected, 3-4 m. So that these precious meters do not disappear, plant berry bushes between the trees and the border ... For example, you can plant raspberries (which are very friendly with an apple tree, moreover, it can bear fruit in partial shade) or black currants (which can also bear fruit in partial shade), leaving 1–1.5 m to the border, so that it is convenient to work with berries, not crossing the boundaries. The root system of raspberries and black currants is located in the surface layer of the soil, and the root system of the apple tree is located lower, so there will be no competition for moisture and nutrition between these berry bushes and trees.

Trees are planted at a distance of 4 m from each other, and shrubs - 1–1.5 m.

If you have a larger plot, then you can plant trees in a group in one or two places, according to a 4 × 4 m scheme.Then it is not necessary to make straight paths - make them winding, flowing around the groups of plantings. Visually, such a free composition of the garden with winding paths increases the garden space, but there are much fewer plants in the same area as with regular planning.

212. I have clay soil on the site.Is it possible to plant apple trees, will they not die?

They will not die if you do everything right. If there is clay or heavy loam on the site, then trees cannot be planted in the pits. Clay does not allow water to pass through; during the autumn rains, the planting pit will be filled with water. In winter, it will freeze through and through, which, of course, will cause the death of the root system. Cannot be planted in pits and on peat bogs, as well as where groundwater is close (less than 1 m). In all these cases, hills with a height of about 60–80 cm and a diameter of at least 1 m should be poured. In subsequent years, the hill should be expanded. To do this, it is enough to pour a compost heap around it, and so that the perimeter of the tree has a neat look, pour peat or sand over the garbage and weeds every time. If you use peat, then remember that it acidifies the soil under the apple tree, and it prefers soil with a neutral reaction, therefore, it is necessary to add ash to the peat at the rate of 1 half-liter can for each bucket of peat (or 1 glass of lime or dolomite).

Where to get so much land for a fill mound? And you just put any rubbish right on the ground under the future hill. First, lay a layer of stones, broken slate, or red bricks to keep the roots from growing down where they die. Re-layer all this with any earth that you can heat up on your site and near it. Then put torn, old books in this place (this, of course, is barbaric, but you must admit that many of the published books are only worthy of this fate), magazines, pieces of old boards, large branches, shavings, pieces of cardboard, unnecessary things made of cotton or wool (synthetics do not rot, but only clog the soil, so it should not be laid). And again you layer all this with earth. Then bring in crumpled black and white newspapers (a small amount of colored material is acceptable, but colored glossy illustrations are not, due to the presence of a large amount of harmful dyes). Deoxidizers should be added to this layer: ash, dolomite, lime, whatever you have, at the rate of 1 glass of lime or dolomite for each bucket of earth or 1 half-liter can of ash. Then, all summer long, you can put a compost heap on this place, sprinkling the weeded out weeds and food waste, as well as feces from the toilet with earth, sand or peat. Add a handful of superphosphate from time to time. If you want, you can water the compost heap with a solution of "Baikal Em-1", "Renaissance" or "Compostin" or add "Shining". These preparations will accelerate the decomposition of the compost. By next spring the heap will settle by two-thirds of its height, so in the fall its height should be at least 1.2 m.In the spring, before planting, pour the heap with a solution of potassium that does not contain chlorine, namely: 3 tablespoons of potassium sulfate or carbonate (and also better than potassium nitrate) per 10 liters of water. It makes no sense to add potassium in autumn, because during the autumn rains and winter thaws, the water will dissolve and wash it into the lower layers. On top, add regular earth, whatever you have, in a layer of about 40 cm.

213. If the groundwater is very close to the site, how should the apple tree be planted correctly?

With a close standing of groundwater, as well as on peat-boggy soil, it is impossible to allow the growth of the central root deep down. It is necessary to force it to branch so that the root system is located in the horizontal upper layer of the soil. This is what happens on clays, but in other cases (except for planting on sandy soils), it is necessary to immediately make an obstacle to the growth of roots in depth. To do this, pour a layer of stones, broken brick, clay shards, pieces of slate at the bottom of the seat, and only then add soil. This is especially true for pears in the North-West, since the pivotal root system and central root of the pear go down to a depth of 4 m, and the pear absolutely does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil, especially stagnant or groundwater.

214. How to plant an apple tree correctly if the soil is normal?

If you have ordinary soil (sandy loam or light loam, and even more so arable land), then you can plant it on a flat surface.You just need to remove the top layer of the soil. Turn the turf over and lay it around the seat, creating a border. Pull out the roots and rhizomes of perennial weeds. Make a small depression (15–20 cm), fold the removed soil onto the frame. Introduce a mound of fertile, moist soil into the center of the depression and plant a seedling on this mound. Sprinkle with good soil on top, flush with the frame.

215. Why is it recommended to put an apple tree seedling in water before planting?

Before planting, any seedling must be placed in water for 2-3 hours so that the tree is saturated with moisture, and then immediately planted in place. But do not keep in water for more than 2-3 hours: the roots will lose a significant part of potassium, and this will have a bad effect on their survival rate and further growth.

216. How to tie an apple tree to stakes correctly when planting?

After planting, the seedling should be tied up, otherwise in loose soil the wind will loosen the root system and the seedling will simply fall. But here's how exactly to bind? You, of course, paid attention to how the seedlings are tied when greening the city? This is how you tie - to three stakes. This is the most reliable way. And if you are used to tying to two, then drive the stakes not from the south and north of the seedling, as recommended in the books (the explanations on this matter are incomprehensible), but drive the stakes in the direction of the prevailing winds in your area. In the Northwest, westerly winds prevail, which means that the stakes must be driven from the west and east of the seedling. Then the harness will keep the seedling from swaying in the wind. If you are planting a one year old twig or planting a container grown plant, then you do not need to tie it up.

217. They planted an apple tree, it took root, dismissed the leaves, and then suddenly dried up. Why?

If the apple tree has dried up despite abundant watering, then most likely you made a mistake when planting. It was necessary to shorten the aerial part of the plant, that is, to shorten the central conductor and all branches by a quarter (and in dry weather even by a third) of their length. Then the balance between the weakened root system and the aerial part that is too large for it will be restored and the seedling will take root well. This, of course, does not apply to container-grown seedlings.

218. Is it necessary to rake the leaves under the apple trees in autumn?

In the North-West, tree roots spread quite far beyond the crown perimeter, since the roots do not go deep into cold and barren soils, but prefer to spread out in breadth, in a small arable soil layer only 40-50 cm thick, and therefore are vulnerable to large sudden frosts after a thaw ... Therefore, I recommend not to rake the leaves in the fall, but, on the contrary, throw them around the trees. Do not be afraid of pests and pathogens of diseases allegedly hibernating on the leaves, there are no more and no less of them than during spring and autumn digging of near-trunk circles. Incidentally, this is also a delusion. The less you dig, the better the tree will bear fruit.

219. Why does the apple tree not begin to bear fruit for a long time?

Winter varieties of apple trees generally begin to bear fruit much later than autumn and, especially, summer varieties. This can happen even in the seventh year after planting a one year old or two year old seedling. But if all the deadlines have passed, and the apple tree does not want to bear fruit, check if you deepened the trunk too much during planting. In this case, the tree will have to be lifted or dug up. When planting apple trees, the root collar is not buried into the soil at all, let it be a little higher than the soil surface.

Another reason may be that the branches are growing vertically or almost vertically upward. They must be bent to an almost horizontal position. Fruiting takes place only on horizontal branches. The branches must be bent gradually; for this, a cuff is made on them from a dense material, which freely wraps around the branch. Then a rope is tied over the cuff without tightening it. The end of the rope is tied to a peg driven into the soil from the side where the branch is going to be deflected. (The peg is driven in obliquely from the tree.) After that, they begin to gradually wind the rope around the stake.Having slightly bend the branch during the summer, it is allowed to overwinter in this position, and the next summer it is again bend back to an almost horizontal position.

If the branches are horizontal and the planting is done correctly, and the apple tree does not bear fruit, this is due to a lack of iron. There is an old folk remedy: drive two medium-sized rusty nails into the trunk of the apple tree. Or you can simply bury a few rusty metal objects under the apple tree or spray it 2-3 times during the season with a 0.1% solution of ferrous sulfate (1 teaspoon of vitriol per 8-10 liters of water). Or use "Uniflor-micro" or "Florist" (2 teaspoons per 10 liters of water) for foliar feeding.

220. When to plant an apple tree?

Generally speaking, in the spring. In the Northwest, the best landing time is May. The apple tree is a sonula, it wakes up relatively late, unfolds its leaves late, the root system starts working only when the soil in the zone of sucking roots warms up to 8 ° C. In the Northwest, the soils are poor in humus, so they are cold. They warm up slowly due to the fact that cold comes from the lower layers of the earth, and the above-ground temperature is low, which is why the upper layer also heats up slowly. In such conditions, a half-asleep apple tree easily tolerates transportation and transplantation in May.

221. What to look for when buying apple seedlings?

Be sure to carefully examine the roots. If they are too dry and there are no young roots on them, do not take seedlings. There will be little sense from it. Therefore, it is better not to buy seedlings at all kinds of exhibitions and fairs, because the planting material, as a rule, is imported, and from the southern regions of the country. Firstly, imported varieties are not zoned for other regions, grown in southern regions, with a warmer climate than where they will live, therefore they will often freeze slightly, and in a harsh winter they may even die. In addition, the seedlings were transported for quite a long time, and therefore their root system may be in a deplorable state. It is best to go to a well-established local nursery and buy a seedling there on the spot. It is also very good if it is dug up right in front of you.

222. How to properly transport an apple tree seedling?

It will be great if, going for apple seedlings, you bring sphagnum moss with you. Moss retains moisture and is also bactericidal, so roots coated with such moss will easily tolerate transportation. But not everyone can get the moss, there is another option: it is enough to wrap the roots with wet newspapers in several layers. Then you need to wrap them in a plastic diaper, and then you can carry even 2-3 days. Previously, before being transported over long distances, the roots of the seedlings were dipped in a clay mash with a mullein. This was done in order to preserve the small sucking roots. If they are alive, the apple tree will quickly take root.

223. Is it possible to plant a three-year-old apple tree?

It makes no sense to plant apple trees older than three years. And in general, the younger the seedling, the easier it is to take root in a new place. Therefore, I recommend buying annual seedlings, they are also cheaper.

224. We bought apple tree seedlings, but the place for planting them is not yet ready. What to do with the seedlings?

If you bought a one-year-old seedling that was not grown in a container, and you did not prepare a planting place for it, then plant it on any vegetable garden. Let the first year grow up, and during this time you will prepare a permanent place for it and transplant it into place next spring. You can dig up a seedling in the spring and plant it again in the same place until next spring. Such a three-time transplanting makes the plant survive stress, and they contribute to the strengthening of the tree. He will have large, good quality apples. Sometimes even wild, grown from the seeds of a ripe apple (certainly a zoned variety), transplanted three times, gives remarkably large, tasty fruits.

225. What conditions does an apple tree need for normal growth and fruiting?

Like most plants, the apple tree prefers a soil with a neutral, at least slightly acidic, reaction, rich in organic matter and potassium.This is a potassium-loving plant, don't forget about it! But the apple tree will grow and even bear fruit on clay or peat, on sandy and rocky soil, rather scarce. In principle, the plant is quite moisture-loving, but it is quite tolerant of minor droughts. She tolerates quite large frosts, and therefore managed to take root in the rather harsh northern latitudes. Apple tree needs a good place in the sun. She, of course, will put up with partial shade, but in such a humid region as the North-West, where there is already little light, lichen will quickly overwhelm the apple tree in partial shade.

226. Do I need to apply fertilizer when planting a seedling?

It all depends on what kind of soil you have at the planting site. If this is good, garden land, then don't. If there is solid sand, then it is imperative to add any complex mineral fertilizer that slowly dissolves in water. For a one-year-old seedling, it is quite enough to add, for example, 1 tablespoon of "Aquarium" from the Buisk chemical plant. Or 1 tablespoon of granular, water-insoluble AVA fertilizer. By the way, it will last for three years. At worst, you can add 1 tablespoon of "Azofoski", even better - "Ekofoski" or "Kemira".

In addition, organic matter must be introduced. In sandy or sandy loam or podzolic soils - 2-3 buckets of rotted compost or manure for a one-year-old seedling. For a two-year-old seedling, the dose should be doubled, and for a three-year-old - threefold.

If the soil is peaty, then it is better to deoxidize it, and not apply mineral fertilizers. Organics on such soils are also not needed in the first year of the seedling's life. Trees are not planted in clay, as mentioned above, but the hill, which will have to be poured on top of it, must contain both organic and mineral fertilizers.

227. How many times a season should an apple tree be fed?

Unlike garden plants, which should be fed and watered all season, the apple tree needs mineral fertilizing twice a season. The first should be done in the spring, at the time of the spread of the leaves. Plants need nitrogen and potassium at this time. You can use specialized feeding for fruit and berry plants of the Buisk chemical plant, you can use only "Aquarium" or "Omu". Enough 3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water. Or take "Ekofoska" or "Kemira". At worst, use 1 tablespoon of urea and 2 tablespoons of carbonate or potassium sulfate (or potassium magnesium) per 10 liters of water.

The second mineral dressing is needed for fruit and berry crops at the end of summer, when a young root system begins to grow in them. In mid - late August, prepare a solution of double granular superphosphate (2 tablespoons) and chlorine-free potassium (1 tablespoon) in 10 liters of water. And pour this solution at the rate of 10 liters per square meter (naturally, along the perimeter of the plant crown). Don't worry that superphosphate doesn't dissolve in cold water. Gradually, it will penetrate into the root zone and even remain in the soil for the next season. But you can use ready-made autumn fertilizer for fruit and berry plants of the Buisk plant.


De development garden and city.

Otzhe, I will be vyachinim for the joy, as it is competently hanging a tree admirably for a dilyanka, on a yaky vidstani and shho the same plant. Is it the same to plant grapes on the side? Is it more beautiful to destroy the city? On the city and garden I plan the upper part of the dilyanka.
(image link is out of date)

(image link is out of date)

(image link is out of date)

I see that you have a small plot - 5-6 hundred square meters?

I would place a vegetable garden, a vineyard and a garden according to the principle - "in the south there are small plants, in the north there are large ones." In your photo, I roughly depicted the zones of the vegetable garden, vineyard and garden:
http://io.ua/30364469m.jpg

To place, as you wrote, everything in the northern part behind the house, especially the vineyard and the vegetable garden, is bad for those considerations that it will be shaded, there will be no good harvests.
Vineyard trellises should be positioned from north to south so that they are evenly lit on both sides. It’s just between the eastern wall of the house and the fence it’s place - and it will be well lit and the house will be closed from the westerly winds.
Shrubs - Raspberries and currants can be planted several bushes between the vineyard and the vegetable garden.

And behind the house is a garden. Distances between trees - at least 3 meters, from the fence - one and a half meters, from the house - three meters.

I see that you have a small plot - 5-6 hundred square meters?

I would place a vegetable garden, a vineyard and a garden according to the principle - "in the south there are small plants, in the north there are large ones." In your photo, I roughly depicted the zones of the vegetable garden, vineyard and garden:
http://io.ua/30364469m.jpg

To place, as you wrote, everything in the northern part behind the house, especially the vineyard and the vegetable garden, is bad for those considerations that it will be shaded, there will be no good harvests.
Vineyard trellises should be positioned from north to south so that they are evenly lit on both sides. It’s just between the eastern wall of the house and the fence it’s place - and it will be well lit and the house will be closed from the westerly winds.
Shrubs - Raspberries and currants can be planted several bushes between the vineyard and the vegetable garden.

And behind the house is a garden. Distances between trees - at least 3 meters, from the fence - one and a half meters, from the house - three meters.
Thank you very much !! Dilyanka in less than 11 acres.
3 photos
Also for grapes, you know in yourself a splash of grape growers http://clubvp.if.ua/vinorobstvo-statti-natyr%20vina.html
I already know people who are over 50 years old, I know exactly what sort of sorts in us will get accustomed to in the Carpathian Mountains. Saditi will be yak Vee.
Axis dorechia top 10 grades of the Carpathian region for 2014 rіk
1. Arcadia
2. Harold
3. Transformation
4. Delight (biliy)
5. Pleven
6. Agat Donsky
7. Nadiya AZDS
8. Valko
9. Laura
10. Kishmish Zaporizhsky

I already know people who are over 50 years old, I know exactly what sort of sorts in us will get accustomed to in the Carpathian Mountains. Saditi will be yak Vee.
Axis dorechia top 10 grades of the Carpathian region for 2014 rіk
1. Arcadia
2. Harold
3. Transformation
4. Delight (biliy)
5. Pleven
6. Agat Donsky
7. Nadiya AZDS
8. Valko
9. Laura
10. Kishmish Zaporizhsky

Quite worthy and proven varieties. Of these, I have Laura - I really like it both in terms of yield and taste, and I grow Arkadia and Nadezhda AZOS shanks for planting this year.
I would also recommend the varieties Codryanka (an unpretentious fruitful and tasty variety) and Muscat Straseni - large purple berries with a very pleasant, slightly nutmeg taste.

Added after 48 minutes
Dilyanka in less than 11 acres.
Sorry, I was wrong. This means that your house is much larger than I could have imagined :)

Well, from taking a throw on the pock ..

The walnut at the southern end of the grape trellis is wrong - it will shade the grapes and there will be no harvest. Its place, IMHO, is on the other side, in the southwest corner.

ambaluk, nut to you in the opposite corner (northwest.) in the very corner.
I would also advise, if you do not plan to use the garden industrially, then plant several varieties on one tree - this will greatly reduce the planting area and give you a rich varietal variety.
Also, pears and plums are mostly tall trees, it is better to plant them near the fence.
ksati you do not have cherries on the list, do not like cherries (they are also tall - under the fence)?

like this. this arrangement will improve pollination.

By the way, ozhina is a climbing plant, you need a trellis under it, that is, you can run it along the fence. some raspberries also require trellis.
or simply planted in rows. but gooseberries and currants are planted in separate bushes. Consider this when you are already thinking about the landing in detail.

nut to you in the opposite corner (northwest.) in the very corner.


I think - in this case, the main thing is that the neighbors in the north of the site agree that they will shade the walnut for half a garden :)

industrial use of the garden, then plant several varieties on one tree. To navigate unknowingly, as it is possible, on one tree a sorts of varieties. It's fair to do it! Dyakuyu for information. I will read more about it.

Also, pears and plums are mostly tall trees, it is better to plant them near the fence. So, as a child, the plum and pear will be smaller than the apple. If I want the apples to shape and shape low, it’s not high for apples to climb.Todi mabut Vi is right. I will still be delighted with the mintsev gardeners, I will look on the grounds.

ksati you do not have cherries on the list, I love them, forgetting))), it seems like a sort of cherry type.

By the way, ozhina is a climbing plant, you need a trellis under it, that is, you can run it along the fence. some raspberries also require trellis. I see. Dyakuyu!

Added after 4 minutes
the axis of knowledge about the grafting of different varieties on one apple, perhaps in good health. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zbcf9uz2UXI

Added after 1 minute
I think - in this case, the main thing is that the neighbors in the north of the site agree that they will shade the walnut for half a garden :)
Nema susіdіv)) I will not be soon))) I will be honored with viticulture, I will buy susіdnі dіlyanka and plant with grapes: D

Added after 5 minutes
Sorry, but not taking care of the garden, then you will see my shock, from the offensive
- "Several varieties (apples, pears, plums) can be grown on one fruit tree at once": shock:

The garden, just for your own needs, well, to your friends and family. To navigate unknowingly, as it is possible, on one tree a sorts of varieties. It's fair to do it! Dyakuyu for information. I will read more about it.
this is great, the vaccination will help you a lot.
You can buy some kind of basic varieties that you want right away, and then after two or three years you can plant several other varieties on them.
Some nurseries sell seedlings of two or three varieties at once.


That, as a family, it sounds like a plum and a pear will be smaller than an apple. If I want the apples to shape and shape low, it’s not high for apples to climb. Todi mabut Vi is right. I will also be delighted with the mintsev gardeners, I will look on the grounds.

a pear can grow up to 100 years old, an apple tree is much smaller. I have, for example, two pears, my great-grandfather also planted them, they stretched out above 10 meters. Apple trees are usually no more than 4-5.
And the apple tree, as you rightly said, can be omitted by pruning. It is more difficult with a pear, it grows very actively, and after strong pruning, it shoots a lot of young animals.

I love, forgetting))), it seems є yaky variety - CHERRY type.
This is the Podbelskaya type. I would not recommend it. Cherries from it are useless, but cherries. and it is not cherry.

From red cherries I will advise "Farewell" (early), "Donetsk coal" (late)

I will be honored with viticulture, I will buy some grapes and grapes

Oh, viticulture is a very fascinating topic, then it will pull for winemaking) So immediately plan a shed for this business with a deep basement))

- "Several varieties (apples, pears, plums) can be grown on one fruit tree at once"

There is not a variety here within the same breed - different varieties of apple trees are grafted on an apple tree, different varieties of pears are grafted on a pear, etc. At the same time, the ripening period is observed - autumn varieties are grafted onto an autumn variety, and winter varieties on a winter one.
As a novice gardener, I would not advise you to do vaccinations for now. First, just plant a tree, get it to take root, form a crown and protect against disease.

Added after 6 minutes
Message from ambaluk
I love, forgetting))), it seems є yaky variety - CHERRY type.
This is the Podbelskaya type. I would not recommend it. Cherries from it are useless, but cherries. and it is not cherry.

Well, I am very pleased with my Cherry (another name - Miracle cherry): good: And it ripens early, in June, and the taste is great - both cherries and cherries, but there is no wateriness, like cherries, and not as sour as cherries.
I advise everyone.

First, just plant a tree, get it to take root, form a crown and protect against disease.
So I will be robust, everything is acting.
From the rest of the video know, 7 erasing for 1 pear))
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HG4Kadc_YSU

Added after 4 minutes
a pear can grow up to 100 years old, an apple tree is much smaller. I have, for example, two pears, my great-grandfather also planted, they stretched out above 10 meters
Exactly! Having guessed, 1 pear in the grandmothers, the bully pear, the arch of the head, the other bully pears, then the liquorice. I still have a taste of that pear compote.

Oh, viticulture is a very fascinating topic, then it will pull for winemaking) So immediately plan a shed for this business with a deep basement))

I think I’ll put 7-8 table sorts on the trellis, I think I’ll still plant 4-5 table sorts of wine.

The garden, just for your own needs, well, to your friends and family. To navigate unknowingly, as it is possible, on one tree a sorts of varieties. It's fair to do it! Dyakuyu for information. I will read more about it.


That, as a family, it sounds like a plum and a pear will be smaller than an apple. If I want the apples to shape and shape low, it’s not high for apples to climb. Todi mabut Vi is right. I will also be delighted with the mintsev gardeners, I will look on the grounds.

I love, forgetting))), it seems є yaky variety - CHERRY type.

.
Added after 5 minutes
Sorry, but not taking care of the garden, then you will see my shock, from the offensive
- "Several varieties (apples, pears, plums) can be grown on one fruit tree at once": shock:

The size of the tree is very dependent on the rootstock. for almost all fruit trees, there are tall, medium-sized, dwarf rootstocks. each of them has its own characteristics of care and life span. each has its own pros and cons. when you buy seedlings, be interested in what they are grafted on. literate nurseries themselves always indicate the stock. by the way, this is also an indicator of the seriousness of the approach for me. and do not skimp on seedlings. in general, prices for seedlings in Ukraine are ridiculous even at the most reputable nurseries. do not buy on the highways, in the markets. only in proven places. otherwise, disappointments from the variety and surprises with rootstocks cannot be avoided. if necessary, I can write reliable sellers. somewhere already on our forum wrote by the way.
By grafting several varieties on one tree. under no circumstances plant a pear and an apple tree on the same tree. they will take, but the pear will eventually hammer the apple tree. even of one species, try to plant varieties of the same fruiting period on one tree. those. the tree with the early varieties is one, the later ones are different. firstly, avoid a situation where the early fruits will fall, knocking down the later ones. and for a tree such a prolonged active period from early flowering of early varieties to late fruiting of later varieties is not good.
What you called CHERRY, these are cherry and sweet cherry hybrids. those. Duke. the so-called sweet cherry. varieties of dukes: Miracle cherry, meeting, Minx. there are many of them.
Grape varieties are a good choice. though I once ordered Kishmish Zaporozhye, I was criticized for this choice on grape. but I planted it for dad in the country. in a warm climate, they write decent seeds. conditional such kishmish. where it is colder, as I understand it, he showed himself better. I haven’t tried my dad’s harvest, I personally cannot say. For Codreanca and Laura (Flora), I have been choosing from these two varieties for a long time. there was only one place. As a result, she planted the variety Zabava (Laura (Flora) * Kodryanka) of our breeder Zagorulko. write that this variety combines the best qualities of Laura and Codryanka. in recent years, many have been replacing both Laura and Codreanka with this variety. praise very much. I have already had a crop for 2 years. one from the earliest. very vigorous. to taste, in my opinion, simple, sweet. but my son really likes it. I have fun almost without pits, who try, ask what kind of raisins. but this is not kishmish at all. I do not know why I rarely come across 1 bone. I do not process anything except prophylaxis. and then to a minimum. I like the transformation more in taste, although connoisseurs generally do not include it in the most delicious ones. spoiled. I like. I have it, too, almost pitted. but the Transfiguration matures much later. so as for the first grapes Zabava is a very good choice. with raisins, I and especially the children liked the Americans: Ainset Sidliss and Venus. bones even a hint have never been met. children call them sweets

Added after 11 minutes
yes, and summer varieties of apple trees, pears, to a minimum. they are not transportable, do not lie, do not hang on a tree, fall and immediately rot. do not plant them in areas where there are gazebos, where heaps of rot and flies are not desirable, as a consequence. plant, so that the first vitamins are a little, not accelerating over the entire variety of varieties. so, for a quick eat that's all. Well, when planting all fruit, take into account the timing of fruiting.so that it does not work out that there will be many autumn apples of the same period and no summer and winter apples, for example. also strawberries, raspberries, etc. it's kind of simple obvious things. but when you just start doing something, sometimes you don’t think everything right at once, and you don’t know what exactly you need to think. There is a lot of information to fall at once, which is the main thing to pay attention to, you do not always immediately understand

I will not say about the apple tree, but for a pear, for example, there is no such restriction. just on the contrary, it makes sense to plant varieties of different periods on the same tree.

And on apple trees the same way. This is the whole point - to get different varieties on the same tree throughout the season.: Beer:

The size of the tree is very dependent on the rootstock. for almost all fruit trees, there are tall, medium-sized, dwarf rootstocks.
Wow! We saw nothing for an hour, they did not write such a summary. Thank you very much: rolleyes:
For two, will you please?
So also say your 2 words about the varieties of apples and pears.
do not buy on the highways, in the markets. only in proven places. otherwise, disappointment from the variety and surprises with rootstocks cannot be avoided
Also, you know a lot of people and businesses to take care of fruit trees.


with raisins, I and especially the children liked the Americans: Ainset Sidliss and Venus. bones even a hint have never been met. children call them sweets
I am worried about the number of Americans, we have a specific climate, that sort of I have written, the price is 100% working on the Carpathians, the price of the forum of our winegrowers is "pulling".
Dorechі, how did they plant, how did they spread it for 6 months for planting Viongrad?

I am worried about the number of Americans, we have a specific climate, that sort of I have written, the price is 100% working on the Carpathians, the price of the forum of our winegrowers is "pulling".
Dorechі, how did they plant, how did they spread it for 6 months for planting Viongrad?

Don't worry about Americans. The frost of the temple, the strength of growth is also. Yupiter, American kishmish, -27 showcases, can be molded by the unruffled, go to berries, wine, juices and izyum.

Шодо 6 місць. How many were seen on 6 bushes?

Don't worry about Americans. The frost of the temple, the strength of growth is also. Yupiter, American kishmish, -27 showcases, can be molded by the unruffled, go to berries, wine, juices and izyum.

Шодо 6 місць. How many were seen on 6 bushes?
http://i.piccy.info/i9/ae14ee8e114499a2d8a49c34924d542d/1425547169/258279/879069/vynograd.jpg (http://piccy.info/)http://i.piccy.info/a3/2015-03-05 -09-19 / i9-7833969 / 785x523-r / i.gif (http://i.piccy.info/a3c/2015-03-05-09-19/i9-7833969/785x523-r)

Dorechі, how did they plant, how did they spread it for 6 months for planting Viongrad?

Crumbs did not mind your food. In the photo you have placed 6 bushes from the stand of 3 meters between them - the very optimum.
Quite in line - maybe optimal.
The trellis requires a double area to accommodate a maximum of shoots when the trees are shaped like a "fan". 4 sleeves per bush, 2 per skin area. You know the shape of the trellis in YouTube.

)) this will be in the course of your viticulture. the benefit of grapes is such a culture that in the second year you can already get the first test bunch from the bush. If you don't like it, cut off the shoot and plant (http://youtu.be/fvS42oki5VE) something else, and the root develops further.

cut off the shoot and graft something else, and the root develops further. Super great.

Added after 2 minutes
Crumbs did not mind your food.
Nutrition in that - if you have 6-8 planting places, specifically, if you planted varieties, that is more white, that is dark, without pins, etc.
For the first hour, it’s for yourself, your motherland, your friends. Yaksho I can honor those saditi.

For two, will you please?
So also say your 2 words about the varieties of apples and pears.

Also, you know a lot of people and businesses to take care of fruit trees.

I am worried about the number of Americans, we have a specific climate, that sort of I have written, the price is 100% working on the Carpathians, the price of the forum of our winegrowers is "pulling".
Dorechі, how did they plant, how did they spread it for 6 months for planting Viongrad?

For rootstocks, it depends on what kind of trees you want to grow.this is already a matter of taste. I like tall. this is my personal subjective opinion. I like tall trees. love their shadow. you can walk under them. I like to climb on them. they live long. this is with the pros. many prefer dwarfs and semi-dwarfs. it is convenient to harvest from them, they quickly come into fruiting. they are easy to handle. and when you decide on the size of the future tree, then the corresponding rootstock will need to be selected based on your climatic conditions. I bought the last fruit seedlings from Prokazin. and for each one I consulted with him on rootstocks for her wishes and conditions. By the way, I also asked for his recommendations on varieties. Because I wanted, for example, a variety of Golden apples. and their own varieties of Golden are immeasurable. and many for a warmer climate than Kiev. asked Leonid Ilyich, he recommended which ones suit us.
As for the Americans of grapes, you have already correctly written that you should not be afraid of them. these varieties come with Labrusca blood, which means they are much more resistant, winter-hardy than vinifera. they feel great in Kiev. I think they will suit you. they have been with us for a long time. I'll give you a personal note on these varieties specifically reviews of people from different regions.
I agree with the recommended varieties. True, I refused the idea of ​​imprisoning Sophia. Very good reviews for taste and just as everyone writes about her amazing ability to grab all sores. I decided for myself that I don’t want more treatments in the garden where I grow everything for my family. but this is my personal decision. everyone chooses priorities for themselves.
They wrote that it is good to plant varieties with different periods on the same tree. I agree that it is convenient, compact. but I asked this question in lectures in the botanical garden. because the idea is really attractive. they do not recommend doing so. explain this by the fact that a tree with early fruits blooms earlier, bears fruit earlier and then gains strength for wintering. Trees with late periods rest longer in spring, then bloom later, later the fruits ripen. if one tree has early to late fruit, this is a longer active period for the tree. it means less time for him to accumulate strength for laying flower buds, for accumulating nutrients for wintering. those. the tree will live in a mode not typical for it in nature. it means that it will be weaker, it will winter worse, the resistance and resistance to diseases will be lower, the fruits will be worse in quality than they should be in the variety. for example, this is how people eat animals for profit, and females give birth continuously. how long will she be healthy and will last in this mode? similarly in plants. not in vain in not very favorable conditions for the variety, the trees do not bear fruit every year, but after a year. they also need time to rest and gain strength. therefore, the crop is rationed to reduce the load on a tree or vine. by stretching its fruiting period, we further increase the load on the plant. in general, everyone chooses their own solution. I share the information that I received and which I trust, because I see logic in it.
about grape varieties, what would I choose .. I really love grapes, I even eat Lydia with pleasure when there are no others. although she was, of course, removed from the site. For me, the choice of varieties was very difficult. because how to plant everything that I want is not realistic in an ordinary garden plot. vines require decent space and good sunny spots. All grades on your list are good. Zaporozhye has already written about raisins. I have Pleven (Augustine). it was included in the initial eight selected according to reviews. he is at the dacha, where we rarely go. I can't taste the harvest for the second year. I see the ovary, I arrive at the time of ripening, the harvest is gone. so on all my vines. probably delicious, since they eat so quickly for the second year in a row. It seems that until the fence is at least 6 meters with cannons at the corners, I will not put a moat with crocodiles around the perimeter, I will not try my dacha grapes myself. The varieties that are here near the house have already written their reviews. Ruslan is still here. also very early. sweet. the taste is simple but sweet.for its term, for our region, on a par with Zabava - good varieties. Kishmish Radiant added. he is very much praised for his taste. although disease resistance is not very good according to reviews. there was no harvest yet. I dream to try Galbenu Noumcat at the dacha. until fate. everyone also praises the taste very much. similarly and Nadezhda AZOS. chose him. growing. write great for freezing. then, like fresh. I also chose Arcadia, Timur, Kishmish Kesha for myself (they write that it looks like this is the Kishmish 342 variety). all in the country. still growing Shiny. while the harvest was not. I chose suitable varieties for the Kiev region. according to reviews. only early and middle. late, and middle-late did not plant, because in early winter they will not have time to ripen in our country. with a shortage of space, this is an unaffordable luxury, not getting a harvest every year

Christmas time waking up and the axis of such a picture, and at the same time +10 vchor :)
http://i.piccy.info/i9/179dcdd5558455aab1e95084718a957c/1425626444/57810/879485/IMAG0043_800.jpg (http://piccy.info/view3/7838862/762c5d2d6a1f56e2799f61e) /a3/2015-03-06-07-20/i9-7838862/800x479-r/i.gif (http://i.piccy.info/a3c/2015-03-06-07-20/i9-7838862 / 800x479-r)

Added after 1 hour 9 minutes
Dorechі, even more-mensh I am starting with sorts, I will be sajati.

(image link is out of date)

3) Nadiya AZDS
http://leafland.com.ua/edit/uploads/page/60/2c1879a826802e1e18511feca2a212ee.jpg

5) Arcadia
http://www.vinograd7.ru/pic/vernisazh/arkadija.jpg

6) Jupiter (amer kishmish), abo NEPTUNE
http://vine.com.ua/images/stories/picss5/kishcher.jpg

Go to the region 270 UAH, and Harold's saplings and Hope will be double!

Christmas time waking up and the axis of such a picture, and the price of +10 vchora

We had such a thing yesterday. Today everything has melted.

Dorechі, even more-mensh I am starting with sorts, I will be sajati.
Good choice: good:

We are waiting for a report on the landing itself (at the appropriate time, of course :))

We are waiting for the report on the landing itself (at the appropriate time, of course). Ale weather іnshoї dumki.
Before planting the garden and grapes, I still need to finish the plan for the dilyanka. Zrobiti got out, the water was ticking, I plan to have 2 small ditches on the sides, and bring them into the ditch before the arrival. Vipality all the grass, buy it, kill it with a walk-behind tractor. Roboti-sea)))


and Harold's saplings and Nadii will be as good as two!

Well, it’s not rosy, the overgrowths may be strong, I’ll still get the first crop in 2 rychki - a bush of spirits.
Otherwise, it’s not important, all the same on the new mіsci lіk to the rock will be considered to be from 0.
Want to. I would not be brave, the main mass of wet roots will be already far beyond the wikopka boundaries. Carefully rewrite the root system - the environment of the main roots is not the same as the others.

Dorechі, even more-mensh I am starting with sorts, I will be sajati.


Arcadia is definitely a great choice, you will not regret it!

Well, it’s unreasonable, the overgrowths may be strong, I’ll still get the first crop in 2 rychki - a bush of saplings. ale tse I definitely feel. Maybe a little on uvaz not 2 rocky, but also not sold out? Like 2-rik pishov?
The axis here marveled at http://www.shop-vine.com/ Sasha call.


the main mass of wet roots will be already far beyond the wikopka boundaries. Carefully reconsider the root system - the surroundings of the main roots are less than the trochas of the others. A large pit of vicopati is not a problem for me))) Moussevine growers to fill a hole 70x80 і 10 cm to the top to fill a hole. Watering is not required, more in soils and so the sea of ​​water. It seems that it’s possible to wind the crop if the dryness is strong.

Added after 4 minutes
Arcadia is definitely an excellent choice, you will not regret it! I think so, nakraynyak є the method for building up We were shown by spawning a new one.
The axis is so me mіstsevі seemed saditi
http://vinograd.cc/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/posadka3.jpg
In that compartment, I will sing the kaliynykh goodness + black earth + pisok + distillation of old people + a scapula I will sing.

Well, it’s nezumіlo yak tse, the overgrowths may be strong, I’ll still get the first crop in 2 rychki
No need to be misled. The yield on a two-year-old is rather an exception than a rule. Experienced growers even on a three-year-old rigidly standardize the ovary, so as not to "put" a bush. To plant a two-year old is a normal practice.

I go here for all questions

No need to be misled. The yield on a two-year-old is rather an exception than a rule. Experienced growers even on a three-year-old rigidly standardize the ovary, so as not to "put" a bush. To plant a two-year old is a normal practice.

I go here for all questions

http://forum.vinograd.info/
Tezh, little by little, I read this resource. Lyudmila pleased. From the number of information there-head wrapped around!

Zrobiti got out, the water was ticking, I plan to have 2 small ditches on the sides, and bring them into the ditch before the arrival. Vipality all the grass, buy it, kill it with a walk-behind tractor. Roboti-sea)))
__________________

Well, we must wish you health, dedication and hard work!

No need to be misled. The yield on a two-year-old is rather an exception than a rule. Experienced growers even on a three-year-old rigidly standardize the ovary, so as not to "put" a bush. To plant a two-year old is a normal practice.

I go here for all questions

I'm not talking about a full and unlimited harvest in 2 years of vegetation. But getting signal clusters for 2 years is not a problem. Their number depends on the variety and growing conditions - in industrial plantings, yes - they are strictly rationed and gradually reach the planned load, in private farms, where there is an opportunity to look at each bush, give it everything it needs, carry out all operations on time - the harvest is possible and necessary receive for 2-3 years. At the Transfiguration, I left 7 bunches for 2 years, some of them were over 3 kg, on Amethyst for 3 years, 16 bunches of 700-1000 g each.
I have been on the forum indicated by you for a long time, I highly recommend everyone to read it, look at the thread of Sidoryaki S.A. (http://forum.vinograd.info/showthread.php?t=4510) - there he writes that he removes bushes that do not yield for 3 years, and for 2 already loads them pretty well. With the appropriate approach and care.

the main mass of wet roots will be already far beyond the wikopka boundaries. Carefully rewrite the root system - the environment of the main roots is not the same as the others.
Great fossa vicopati for me is not a problem)))

POSITIFF meant that in two years the root has already grown well and when this seedling is dug up, the root can be severely damaged - the thin suction roots will remain in the ground, and not that a large hole will need to be dug under this seedling.

Planting a two-year-old is a normal practice.

This is not a normal practice, but an exception to the rule. Cuttings rooted in winter are planted in spring for permanent residence or in a school. This is the first year of the growing season. On permanent residence, he continues to grow, from the school at the end of the year in the fall, they dig up seedlings and sell them as one-year-olds. Even if they are sold next spring, they still remain one-year-old.
If they are not dug up and left in the school to grow for another 1 year, so that they become two years old, then something was wrong with the seedling in the first year - it grew poorly, slightly matured, etc., etc. It is pruned back to try to grow it normal the next year. But this in itself is not a normal practice and I would not take such a seedling. He has every chance of lagging behind his peers in the future.

Added after 7 minutes
Don't be fooled, it’s normal practice to get two years old.

I go here for all questions

Here I will send you to the same site to the dear Igor Vladimirovich (http://forum.vinograd.info/member.php?u=4194), from whom I personally bought one-year-olds from the school. In the photo you can see what should be one-year-old seedlings. This is the norm and normal practice)

Or not sold. But this does not fall into the category of "something is not right" ?!


Or not sold) But if a dug out seedling is planted in a new place from the buyer or from the seller, then the growers start counting the years from the beginning, and in a year it will be one-year-old again.


I have experience transplanting 4 summer bushes, I assure you, everything is fine.

Nobody says that it is impossible, it is possible, of course, there are all sorts of cases. But these are already extremes: beer:

It is pruned back to try to grow it normal the next year. But this in itself is not a normal practice and I would not take such a seedling. He has every chance of lagging behind his peers in the future.

Everything is just like that! Three years ago, they sold two two-year-old seedlings to me: evil:
Now, all the bushes planted by one-year-olds had to ration the harvest in the second year - there are too many ovaries, and these two have a brush of 300 grams, no more, anywhere. I'll try to re-graft them with green shoots in May, they won't take root - I'll dig them up in FIG.

some of them were over 3 kg Oo


But this in itself is not a normal practice and I would not take such a seedling
Clear! I will be brothers "malyukiv".

I'm not talking about a full and unlimited harvest in 2 years of growing season.
But in your message it reads like an axiom, which is why I wrote. As for Sidoryaki and the removal of bushes, the author answered the question: Sergei, how do you deal with new products when the fruitfulness of the shoots is unknown?
answers:
"new items are tested, and then either get to the industrial landing or remain on the collection.
or leave my vineyard.
To make this happen as rarely as possible, you need to carefully select applicants even before planting in your vineyard "

And we are talking about new products, in our case, proven varieties.
Another pro I. Zaik writes to the question: What if the bush is 1-2-3 years old? How to determine the load in the first year of fruiting? Or in the second, when the signal bunch is eaten?
answer:

Underload, and grow from a bush - a bush.
Or Bush - who is in what is much.
And then it's clear how to load it
http://forum.vinograd.info/showpost.php?p=2839&postcount=2


Added after 2 minutes
Clear! I will be brothers "malyukiv".
And I would take adults with a strong root system.

Added after 41 seconds
Everything is just like that! Three years ago, they sold two two-year-old seedlings to me: evil:
Now, all the bushes planted by one-year-olds had to ration the harvest in the second year - there are too many ovaries, and these two have a brush of 300 grams, no more, anywhere. I'll try to re-graft them with green shoots in May, they won't take root - I'll dig them up in FIG.

Still nothing is clear: D One good thing - We knew the good leader of the sadzhants - Oleksandr Prikhodko. Vin the filthy cannot be sold)
If you lay it all down, you will plant it, you will see it. We can help you with joy.
On the very cob, I also bought Oleksandr's, and I didn’t miss the necessary knowledge and let me see 3 of 4 sadzhants. Having planted a tree yak: lol:

The seller declared something like delight - one is white, the other is blue, but their fruits are exactly the same blue and the taste is mediocre. So - mongrels!

This is the question of who to buy from. Bazaars, stalls and roads, I would exclude from the list of places where seedlings of grapes, trees and bushes are bought.
First of all, I would advise a top-starter to contact local winegrowers. Those will already advise both the grade and the formation and other subtleties, based on the characteristics of the area.: Beer:

The seller declared something like delight - one is white, the other is blue, but their fruits are exactly the same blue and the taste is mediocre. So - mongrels!

The year before last I planted Delight pink, I had 2 signals of not very large size, we will wait and will not make hasty conclusions. Perhaps the seller confused something.

Underload, and grow from a bush - a bush.


The fattening bush does not lay fruit buds well)
So, if we want to be with the harvest every year, it is necessary to count the load of shoots and the load of bunches every year near each bush. And in the course of the season, observing the development of the bush, make adjustments to its development, cutting off the excess.
Or, conversely, loading the bush with a stepchild's harvest to stop growth.

The fattening bush does not lay fruit buds well)

Honestly, I haven’t met two-year-olds fattening, but if you overfeed him with chemistry, it’s equally bad.

Honestly, I have not yet met fattening two-year-olds, but if you overfeed him with chemistry, it is equally bad.

A properly prepared and filled hole is enough for a planted bush for 3 years.
My Amethyst Novocherkassky for 2 years gave out 5 ripe shoots up to 4 m each. I left him 3 bunches in total and fought overgrowth of main shoots and stepsons all season. I didn’t give anything extra.
Everything, of course, depends on the variety. Transformation overtakes Amethyst in my development: o

First of all, I would advise the top-starter to contact local winegrowers.
I’m so hard-headed. Leave-scho zustrіchavsya with one, buv in a new guest, obdivlyavshis, leave-scho everything ukrito pіvkoyu. Winning me like a tapestry, I’m a little guy, who’s still in the air, like a spill between the “table” (3m), and also seemed more beautiful than the brothers, the saplings are ready, like they used to wind up in the winter .. like that.

Added after 9 minutes
another variety of tsіkaviy TALISMAN
http://vinograd.cc/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/talisman.jpg

Grape Talisman is a table form that is resistant to various diseases and frost resistance. The variety is characterized by an early-medium ripening period of 127-135 days.

Bunches of medium density, sometimes loose, conical in shape, weighing 800-1100 g.

Grapes Talisman long-lasting, frost-resistant, withstands up to -25 ° C. Resistant to mildew (http://vinograd.cc/mildyu.html) and gray mold (http://vinograd.cc/seraya-gnil.html).

I’m so hard-headed. Leave-scho zustrіchavsya with one, buv in a new guest, obdivlyavshis, leave-scho everything ukrito pіvkoyu. Winning me like a tapestry, I’m a little guy, who’s still in the air, like a spill between the “table” (3m), and also seemed more beautiful than the brothers, the saplings are ready, like they used to wind up in the winter .. like that.

Growing with bushes 3 m - tse is normal. The view of the tapestry is not ominous, neither is G-like, I am bi all the same, having pleased you in the direction of Y-like.
Having started it from one-sided one, now the axis has been over-digested and overcooked for those weeks.

Planting a seedling in a hole and a trellis in the photo.

... and also it seemed more beautiful than the brothers sazhantsi are ready, like that in the winter they viroshuvali .. as it was.

Vegetable sadzhantsi. I know naskіlki, Prikhodko Oleksandr is not for sale. Re-nourish at the new one. Ale їkh vigorously overpowered to become postal services.

nibi G-podibna, that in my mind just stuff the skin 3 meters of pipes into the ground 80 cm deep into the ground and 2m above the ground, and pull the other between them. And after thinking, at least 80 cm into the ground, weld at least 1 m to the pipes to the fence, practically on one side. Just put the trumpets on the trees and put the planks on the ground.
And why did they overcook on taku?

Added after 1 minute
Vegetable sadzhantsi Oh, it’s so vin and kazav, but in what is it perevaga? What are some of the little things over Timi who sells Oleksandr?

And after thinking, at least 80 cm into the ground, weld at least 1 m to the pipes to the fence, practically on one side. Just put the trumpets on the trees and put the planks on the ground.

I already, it seems, in a personal wrote that if you do this without placing spacers at the bottom and top on these pillars (and this is another 30 meters of pipe or corner), then the wire sagging under the weight of the crop and the vines themselves will squeeze such a structure as an accordion, especially at the bottom, because the lower wires carry the maximum load. Well, the whole crop will be on the ground: o. I would recommend that you still drive the pipes into the ground, or even better - concreting.

.
Oh, it’s so much a win and a Kazav, but why is this a perevaga? What are some of the little things over Timi who sells Oleksandr?
no benefits. those last year were also rooted and reared, if self-rooted. or grafted if the seedling is grafted. these this year. they are just a year younger. it is so difficult to send, young shoots are very fragile. and there will be 1 or 2. if they break off, it is not a fact that the sleeping buds will wake up and come out again. then the seedling is lost. and those rooted last year are expelled asleep. no risks. the root has grown to normal over the past year. You can take vegetative seedlings if someone with a nearby living has rooted the variety you are interested in. they took it, neatly brought it in and planted it after the threat of frost. and then only in the case that this is exactly the variety you need. I remember how my parents' dacha neighbors shared with all the fruit cuttings that they bought on the track with such cool names and beautiful pictures. they were confident that they would have such varieties. when pruning cuttings, they happily shared. then everyone had one Aydaret from the apple tree. and so in everything.practically nothing coincided with the declared. it took only a few years to find out.
Alexander Prikhodko is a very reliable seller and an excellent grape specialist. sells exactly the kind of seedlings it should be. I absolutely trust his opinion. I am happy with his seedlings, there are several varieties from him

ambaluk, by the way, is an excellent choice for varieties

So, I’ll just hammer it down, I’m not hunting for betting, I might want to change .. May 60-ku gas pipe, 6m sticks, navpіl, і 1m into the ground.

And you will need to either put the extreme pillars on the braces, or connect the upper ends of the pipes with a spacer.

And why did they overcook on taku?


There is not enough space for rosetting all pagons of one bush for the introduction of new trellises. I had a chance to see the tapestriesZH-)

And from extreme, yakraz and thinking in betonuvati +
to the extreme weld turnik + bars for yourself and sin.
Pidtyagnuvsya sobi 10 times - z "yyyadku)))

Could be so! the main thing is that the structure is rigid so that the wire can be pulled.

Universe scale: D Both those and others land at the end of May. Only vegetative ones already with an increase of up to 0.5 m and have a greater chance of growing large shoots, ripening and forming 1-2 shoulders already in the first year of the growing season. And next year to see the signaling.
I planted 3 options - vegetative seedlings, just seedlings in autumn and spring. According to the start, the strength of growth and the finished result by the end of the first year of growing season at the new planting site, they are in the same queue and are located in my conditions.)

do you mean vegetative seedlings only rooted this spring or last year's rooted, which were previously taken out to wake up at home? if rooted this year, the fact that they are planted with long shoots is not the main thing. there still roots grow and grow, to the size of last year, which have grown already in the season.
if they got it planted, and earlier awakened, but rather it will grow. but it doesn't matter. the task of the first year is to build up a good root. but there will be 2 or 4 m. new shoots are not important at all. all the same, they will need to be cut to the length recommended for each grade. and the strength of growth depends primarily on the variety. I have Fun planted with a seedling in the spring, in the very first year, in terms of growth strength, it overtook all its peers, even Transfiguration, which is also not a crumb. and Ainset sidlis spent the first year almost in place. all side by side are in the same conditions and the quality of the seedlings was approximately the same

Vegetable seedlings are those that Nikolai Vasilyevich talks about in his topic. If planted correctly, they continue to grow without stopping in growth. Planted ordinary seedlings need time to start in the hole, to start the growth of eyes, to start the growth of the same root that is sleeping.
There is more dancing around vegetative seedlings, but 1 year is saved. This is the biggest benefit for me - saving 1 whole year of my life. I'll dance)

by the way, an excellent choice of varieties
Well, spilny zusillami! І ve stuck! Dorechі in Oleksandr went for all the miracle of all 270 UAH. Having written down the change, I will be warmer, I will buy one. I will marvel at Rashtu Mabut in Moscow.

There is not enough space for rosetting all pagons of one bush for the introduction of new trellises. I had a chance to see the tapestry
So I don’t put on your rake, but just cook "U"?

So I don’t put on your rake, but just cook "U"?

Of course, because "Any winegrower who has installed a one-plane trellis always strives to make it two-plane" (c) - this fundamental rule was not invented by me, but only in my free presentation: D

So I don’t put on your rake, but just cook "U"?

The overgrown bush of grapes, repairing its life for 4-5, is responsible for carrying the vantage at the size 35-40, and in some and more green pagons. Recommended numbers you can find in the descriptions of the varieties you vibrate.
In order for grapes not to be sick, wine is not guilty of being thickened. It is recommended to roztashovuvati pagony yogo for a size of 10-15 cm one from one.Yak will transfer 35-40 pagons to qiu vidstan, virakhute 3 m zamalo)
Also, either the thickening and the fight against ailments, or the change in the number of pagones and the fight against the overwhelming force of the growth of the bushes (fattening) or the change in the number of bushes on the increase of the number of the trellis or the trellis is correct.
Vibir is yours.
I planted my own in 2 m, before the speech, so in my place on the first trellis the vibor is not enough to overwhelm the trellis or the virubuvati kushchi.

Yes, if you vibrate at the same time, then you can replace 6 bushes with 7 -)

Also, either the thickening and the fight against ailments, or the change in the number of pagones and the fight against the overwhelming force of the growth of the bushes (fattening) or the change in the number of bushes on the increase of the number of the trellis or the trellis is correct.
Vibir is yours. And, if so, then everything is minyaє. To plant one less plant for men, more to the soul, a little more trellis, as it is more aesthetic viglyadє. Like a parboa alive. I'd like to think about it.

Added after 1 minute
if Sasha Prikhodko does not have any varieties.
All ma! Krim Einset.

Added after 8 minutes
convenient plastic fasteners for poles
tse wono? http://orchardo.ru/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/417-2.jpg
on the extreme pillars of the springs
For the springs, they do not sound, vibrate.

Added after 1 minute
plastic wire
hmm. and hiba plastic is not afraid of ultraviolet? dorechi by price yak viyshlo? Bo thinking about galvanizing drit.

For the springs, they do not sound, vibrate.

The spring keeps the wire taut.

hmm. and hiba plastic is not afraid of ultraviolet? dorechi by price yak viyshlo? Bo thinking about galvanizing drit.

UV stabilizers are added to normal plastic.
And galvanized wire, of course, is cheaper. Especially if you buy it at a metal warehouse for kilograms, and not for meters at the bazaar. I don’t know how it is now, but the year before last I bought a wire of 1.2 kilograms, about 3 hryvnias for 80 - I pulled on grape and raspberry trellises and another third remained.

such wire http://www.shop-vine.com/product/provoloka-plastikovaja/ gives 20 years warranty for it. I took 2.6 diameter. for the price it was ok. not insanely expensive. took almost 4 years ago. I don’t remember exactly the amount. I don't even remember how much I took then. we have a bay, I think we figured it out for three :)
I took such fastenings for myself http://www.shop-vine.com/product/kreplenie-provoloki-k-stolbu-plastik/ they are in to the posts, which are intermediate, are fastened and the wire is passed through them. cut the wire on the need. if you paint, for example, poles. easy to take off, then put on. there the price is for 100 pcs.
1.5 UAH meter walk, 80m = 120 UAH. inexpensive!

Added after 1 hour 21 minutes
OK, the grapes are "+" "-".
It's time for the "heavy artillery" to fraternize.
Who should you please on fruit trees?
1) 6 apple trees
2) 3 pears
3) 2 drains
4) 1 cherry
5) 1 sweet cherry
6) 1 gorіkh

The amount can be adjusted.
There were a lot of wintering bazhans. I want a little child, my apple.
I guess the distribution is approximately
(image link is out of date)

1.5 UAH meter walk, 80m = 120 UAH. inexpensive!

Added after 1 hour 21 minutes
OK, the grapes are "+" "-".
It's time for the "heavy artillery" to fraternize.
Who should you please on fruit trees?
1) 6 apple trees
2) 3 pears
3) 2 drains
4) 1 cherry
5) 1 sweet cherry
6) 1 gorіkh

As regards apples, the situation is generally good. in all supermarkets they are labeled by grade. and the number of them is normal. you can try and choose. then look by region. by ripening time.
The taste and color of apples is generally all individual. my children love Golden very much. I planted Gold Rush on a medium-sized rootstock 54-118, took it from Prokazin. they recommended this variety for my region. like Gloucester. from late summer, the most beloved ones are Glory to the Winner and Daneshta (from childhood I knew this variety, my grandmother had it like Borovytsya). I have not tried it, but planted it, because everyone appreciates the taste of Mutsu varieties very highly, planted Mutsu NK. the truth on the dwarf. on 54-118 it was not. but my Mutsu is on a dwarf rootstock B-7-35, he does not need support. from the early planted Candy, Julie Red. I all dream of planting the Celeste variety. but I miss it. delicious pears Favorite of Klapp. Bera Ardanpon was planted from Bera varieties as soon as we bought a plot. then she was not yet very versed in varieties. I didn't even know what to look for when choosing. I have had it for 4 years. freezes terribly. everything that grows during the season freezes in winter. I think. She is not a tenant with me. I tried to bloom a year ago, but there is 1 m in height and one stick. where it still blooms, I removed the buds.will be lost, so be it. I don't even know what kind of rootstock it is. something probably quite dwarf. By the way, pome fruits are perfectly formed by bending. Kurdyumov has it in detail in his books. I bring up one pear with a trellis.
With Chereshen. I chose the yellow one from the classic Drogana, Valery Chkalov. with newer Farewell, but Lilia Ivanovna Taranenko, the author of these varieties, told me that she does not really recommend them for Kiev, although this is one of the largest-fruited varieties, like Vasilisa. but Farewell and Vasilisa have not very winter-hardy flower buds. in severe winters, a large percentage of them will freeze slightly. for Kiev, she recommended Donchanka from her varieties (I planted her), Sister, Yaroslavna, Otrada. I dreamed of buying the seedlings of her varieties personally from Lilia Ivanovna. if the originator is still alive in our country, then I do so. but when she spoke to her, she said that her health did not allow her to deal with shipments, that she could come and buy. I was even going to go. although very far away. but a few months later it became known that Lilia Ivanovna had died. so I ordered her varieties from Prokazin.
planted with cherries Memory Vavilov. I really like it. and the yield even on a young small tree is shocking. more Meeting and Miracle cherry. I haven't tried these yet.
with the plums I decided for myself that I wanted something Hungarian for food and for prunes. and from light renklods. from the Hungarian women at the very beginning she planted Stanley (Stanley). however, a year ago I had an invasion of hares in the garden in the country. the forest is nearby. almost the entire garden was very compassionate. gnawed on the bark all over the tree circle. this plum also suffered. I think she is not a tenant. although she took all the measures and made bridges. in general, I read very positive reviews from Hungarians about the Amers variety, California Blue, Chachakskaya Naibolia. from the light ones she took a variety from Prokazin, which the real name is not known, conventionally it is called Renklode honey. Leonid Ilyich praised him very much.
Do you want a walnut? I decided not to plant it for myself. at mom's dacha is growing, that's enough. too big a tree and it is bad with someone next to it. I have a summer residence of only 20 acres. it’s a pity for such a giant. I planted hazelnuts. everyone is very fond of these nuts. and now the prices for them are generally crazy. they need 2-3 different mutually pollinated varieties for fruiting. I have 2 grades. Catalan and Galle. Barcelona planted, but he was gone. then I took in the spring in the nursery Solntse Sad. acquaintances praised their autumn seedlings. but in the spring I got my own - just chopped off roots. terrible seedlings. such dances with a tambourine around with him with different stimulants for the roots. only 1 survived. I took other hazelnut seedlings from Igor Tsybenko (Batkiv Garden), those good ones came http://rus.batkivsad.com.ua/
This is true. basting. There are many wonderful fruit varieties. for your region, perhaps others will be a better choice. I think the best solution would be to contact nursery specialists and ask for a recommendation. pre-decide your preferences

I ask the advisors for this topic for help.

There is a 3-year-old pear seedling, on the top of which two shoots with thickenings at the end have formed.

I want to trim to awaken the second tier, but these thickenings are embarrassing.
Maybe they are needed for some reason?

I want to trim to awaken the second tier, but these thickenings are embarrassing.
Maybe they are needed for some reason?
This is the apical fruit bud - the fruit. If the shoots of pome fruit are not cut off, then they will bear fruit only from one apical bud, and if you cut it off, then this stimulates the transformation of the remaining buds from vegetative into the same fruit ones (not all, of course, some will remain vegetative and new shoots will grow from) ... This is the main purpose of pruning - to stimulate the appearance of a large number of fruits. Here is how several thick fruits appeared on the pear as a result of cutting along the length of the remaining part of the shoot:
http://io.ua/30329273n.jpg

In general, cut boldly to the desired height of the 2nd tier!


Fig. 27. Variants of site design: a - landscape b - geometric c - country estate

For the construction of fences and walls in gardens, various materials are used: wood, concrete, brick, wire mesh, etc.

Wooden fences are often made with brick supports, at a distance of 3-4 m. So that the tree does not absorb moisture from the soil, vertical boards are nailed 5 cm above the soil level. It is good to make a stone edging under them. If the supports are made of wooden pillars, their lower parts, which are in the ground, are treated with antiseptics or burned, and then immersed in molten resin. Such pillars last for 10-12 years. For better preservation, the wooden fence is painted with oil paint. A wire mesh fence is attached to concrete or iron poles, less often to wooden ones.

A good fence can be a wall built of building materials in harmony with the house: bricks, concrete, tiles, etc. The foundation of such a fence is made 40-50 cm deep, laying it on lime or cement mortar.

A hedge looks good along the borders of the garden. Rosehip or hawthorn hedges are impenetrable thanks to thorns.

When designing the territory of a garden plot, one should not forget about garden paths. They should be as straightforward and short as possible. Various slabs, natural and artificial stones, gravel, asphalt are used to cover the paths (Fig. 28). It is advisable to make a road profile with a small bulge in the center - for water flow - and with a longitudinal slope. Sometimes between the slabs, 3–10 cm wide gaps are left, filled with soil. Lawn grass is planted in the cracks.


"Nikolai Vasilievich and his garden with a vineyard near Kharkov"

For a couple of years I tried to grow grapes, but because acted on a whim, the bushes in the first year were stunted and did not grow the next year - they froze (one, however, planted the year before last, by some miracle survived and now bears fruit, but about it separately).
In general, in the winter of 11-12, I read a lot in the Internet, mainly about the covering culture of grapes (non-covering varieties in our area give a berry, suitable only for a buzz, but not for dessert) and by the spring of 2012, one might say, ripe.
The main conclusions that I drew from what I read are as follows (I do not pretend to be the ultimate truth, there are many nuances and subtleties, but this, in my opinion, is the main thing, and I adhere to them, some of them may seem platitudes, but for me they are important)
1. grapes are liana, they cannot stand like a tree. Therefore, in natural conditions, grapes climb to the sun, clinging to other trees and in order to get as much solar energy for their fruits as possible, it fully bears fruit on the shoot of the current year, which has grown from the highest bud of the shoot of the last year. Those. this bud is guaranteed to be the topmost bud and is most likely not to be obscured by the tree the grapes are clinging to. And at the same time, for the same purpose, to be closer to the sun, the growth rate of grape shoots is much higher than that of a tree.
From this, the sub-conclusions:
1.1. grapes need a trellis, and the higher the better.
1.2. Symmetry rule number 1 (I did not come up with it, I just got into it :)) - in order for not only the uppermost bud to bear fruit, but more, last year's vine needs to be tied horizontally to the trellis wire - then all the buds will feel the very top (with the help what "spirit level" the plant determines that this bud is the highest - I don't know, but such a mechanism really exists and works) and will bear fruit in full force.
1.3. Wood older than a year should not carry, therefore, it should be as small as possible (in covering varieties, the perennial trunk, the so-called "sleeve" should reach at an angle to the first wire, that is, be about 50 cm) and buds on it should cut in the bud.

2. Rule of symmetry No. 2. On an annual shoot that is left to bear fruit, the so-called. "fruit arrow", buds should develop on both sides. In a little more detail: if the fruit arrow is tied to the horizon, then half of the buds will be at the top, and half at the bottom. There is a temptation to cut the lower kidneys.But in no case should this be done - without buds, there will be no sap flow on the lower side, the wood will dry out, and as a result, the sap flow will also decrease on the upper side.

3. The root of the grape must be at least 50 cm deep and grow deeper. Horse (or, in other words, "dew") roots are harmful because if they exist, then after the rain the plant dramatically breaks moisture into itself and the berry bursts: o. From this, the sub-conclusions:
3.1. The grapes should be planted in holes 60-70 centimeters deep, the cutting should be deepened at an angle so that the roots are at a depth of 50 cm. The earth should be poured under the first leaf of the green shoot. And as the shoot grows, cut off the lower leaves and add earth until the hole closes.
3.2. grapes are best watered through an in-depth drainage irrigation system - water penetrates into the depth and roots grow behind it.
3.3. you need to periodically (it is recommended every two years) to tear off the root by 15-20 cm, clean it from dew roots and cover it with sand. This procedure is called "kilchevanie".

4. The main part of the grapes is the root. Perennial sleeves (there should be 4-6 of them per bush) should periodically (5-7 years) change to new ones (shoots that grow from the ground are chosen for them. If new sleeves are not needed this year, these shoots are cut out, but not completely - a part is cut into one bud - this is called a "replacement shoot" - one day a new sleeve will grow out of it). Everything else is temporary: the fruit arrow - the year it grows like a green fruit-bearing shoot, the year bears fruit and is completely cut out. Fruiting annual shoots are cut out together with the arrow. In order for the grapes to bear fruit every year, a so-called "fruit link" is created: in the fall, two shoots are left on the sleeve: a long one (6-12 buds, depending on age and variety), this is the above "fruiting arrow", and a short one (3 buds ) - this is called a "replacement knot", next year new fruiting arrows and a replacement knot will grow on it (1 bud - spare, its shoot is then cut out)

5. Over a long period of cultivation, grapes have lost their protective properties, are susceptible to disease and must be protected, preferably prophylactically, with insects and fungi.

In general, armed with this knowledge, at the end of May 2012 I started to implement them in practice :)

I was going to plant grapes in the fall of 2012 (they write that the autumn planting takes root better), like I’ll make a trellis first, but I couldn’t resist and on May 19, 2012 I went to the Horse Market with a pre-compiled list (based on photos and descriptions from the Internet) of the desired varieties. In total, I planned to plant 12 bushes. The season for the sale of seedlings was already coming to an end and managed to select 8 annual green seedlings. The remaining 4 were bought at the market near Proletarskaya metro station. Moreover, 2 of these 4 were bought when they were two years old, with unblown buds and an unknown breed - the owner, who was also a military man, assured that he didn’t know the variety for sure, but the grapes were good. I believed my word of honor.
On the same day I started digging holes (instead of a tapestry, I will first tie it to the stakes). Marked two rows from north to south, 6 bushes in each row. Between the holes in a row - 2 meters (the minimum recommended distance, with a larger size would not fit into the boundaries of the site), and between the rows - 3 meters:

Here are the seedlings waiting to be planted:
http://io.ua/26971561n.jpg

On the left of the first two holes covered with sand - I planted two-year-olds with unblown buds as the seller recommended - I covered the buds with a heap of sand so as not to dry out.

I drew up a protocol of what I planted and photographed it so as not to lose data:

Yes, when planting, I mixed a little humus with potassium salts to the filled soil (I bought a 10 kg bag at a seed store) and poured two buckets of water under each.

A week later, I carefully examined all the bushes - all cuttings with green shoots, one-year-olds, have taken root:

And two weeks later, on June 9, buds blossomed on two-year-olds:

During the summer, once every two weeks, he watered the bushes with two buckets of water, cut off the bottom of the leaf and sprinkled the earth.

By mid-July, the bushes outgrew the colas to which they tied them.The need for a tapestry is ripe! :)

I decided to make the trellis combined - the bottom is a steel corner 50, the top is a wooden block 50x50, for the following reasons:
a) cheaper - 12 m of a corner cost me 360 ​​UAH, and for a whole one it would be necessary at least 2 times more
b) it is less likely that scrap collectors will resist (it is one thing when 2.5 meters of a corner sticks out above the ground, and another - 70 cm - less urge to mess around)
c) the main load of the crop falls on the bottom of the trellis, the first two threads, and the top is only needed to keep the shoots

I bought one whip of a 12 m corner at a metal warehouse, and they cut them 1.5 meters each. it turned out 8 pieces. Placed them across two bushes. Like this:

I dug holes with a depth of 70 cm with a hand drill, inserted the corners and concreted them. At the same time, I set the extreme corners at a slight angle outward - so that when the wire is pulled, the corners, even if they converge, will not fall inward. In the corners I pre-drilled holes for attaching the timber:

Added after 11 minutes
Duc and where will the grapes trudge?
while there is a lot of useful theory, I thought in my first post reading I would see you have a luxurious vineyard and a bottle of wine, but for now only a bookmark)
in my own practice I observe a little differently, although I myself am not a guru of the question - some bushes grow for 3-5 years, some 2-3
wife experiments everything: D
in any case thanks for temka: beer:

And where did you see that immediately after landing and luxurious? Everything is growing gradually. Luxury lies ahead, I haven’t come up to the middle of the story.

At the beginning he brought the theory so that it was clear what I was guided by. Because, as I was convinced by neighbors and relatives, all the problems in their vineyards are in non-observance of the above rules. It is a pity to cut off a fertile vine - you get gnarled long perennial vines, which are folded into a circle, then laid out in a zigzag, and on which long bare areas are not that without some kind of ovaries, even without shoots. And even if there are ovaries, they are small (see conclusion 1 in the first post). And how to cover such a krakozyabra? And if you hide it badly, it will freeze: o

In early October, it was ripe for the device of a drainage irrigation system. The weather was fine, the land was dry. In addition, my elder bought cheap plastic sewer pipes, but they turned out to be defective, with holes. He bought new, better pipes, and they decided to put these pipes on the irrigation system.

I dug a trench 60 cm deep in the middle between the rows, with branches to the sides through two bushes, where there were no trellis posts, i.e. between two bushes planted next to each other, there was either a post or a trench. I poured a 10 cm sand pillow at the bottom of the trench

With a grinder, I cut slots at the bottom of the pipes and laid them on a sandy pillow at the bottom of the trench. My site is slightly downhill, respectively, the pipes also lay downhill. He brought the upper end out, and covered the rest of the ends with rubble, 2-3 buckets each:

I covered the pipe on the sides and a little on top with sand, then with soil and leveled it:

Well, he immediately stretched out a hose and poured in about a ton of water - the so-called autumn charge, they write, is a very important and necessary event for the root system - abundant watering before winter.

At the end of October, the leaves fell and it was time to cover. I read many ways - both with slate and straw and plywood, but, as I understood, the most correct, albeit laborious, way is to cover with the ground.
I dug trenches 10-15 cm deep with a hoe, removed the shoots from the wire and tied them in 3, 4 places in the fascicles without cutting (it is recommended to cut the young bush for the first 4 years in the spring, and then only in the fall), pressed it with a pair of wire brackets to the bottom of the trench and sprinkled it with earth with a roller 15 centimeters high. I got by with two staples and in the end they were not buried.
Here's the result:

This is how the vineyard went into winter.

In winter, somewhere at the beginning of December, when the snow fell and the ground froze (the dirt was not kneading), I cut 4.5-meter 50x50 bars, treated them with a septic tank, and the lower parts with bitumen mastic (warmed with a construction hairdryer). With galvanized wood grouses, I screwed the bars to the corners:

He pulled on the first two rows of wire and left it there until spring.

Yes, I almost forgot - during the season I sprayed it twice with a complex remedy for grapes from pests and fungi. I don't remember the name. I bought it in the nearest "kramnitsa of a land worker" near the Proletarskaya metro station

The winter is over.
In early April of this year, when the snow melted and the ground dried out a little, I dug out some bushes, removed the harness and tied them to a wire to dry:

I looked around - everyone seemed to have wintered!

After a couple of days I sprayed it with iron vitriol, after another couple of days I cut it off: those shoots that at the base were as thick as a pencil and more (there were such shoots where they were, where there were two, where three, only one bush had four), cut them into sleeves: tied them up to the lower wire (its height is about 40 cm for me), left 3 buds above the wire and cut it off (about a centimeter above the extreme kidney It is impossible to cut off, like an apple tree, just above the kidney - the kidney will not survive), and plucked the buds below the wire fingers - nothing grows false on the trunk of the sleeve. The rest of the thin shoots were cut off by one bud above the ground - there will be an attempt at No. 2 to grow a sleeve this year:

Then he tied the upper ends of the sleeves (which have three buds) to the wire horizontally (see in post No. 1 conclusion 1.2 - symmetry rule No. 1):

I processed it with a cultivator along with the rest of the garden and garden (they write that one loosening at the beginning of the season is enough, you don't need to loosen or scorch anymore):

At the end of April in May, the kidneys opened up:

After opening the kidneys, I did the first watering of the season: I poured about a ton of water into the drainage pipe.

Shoots began to grow intensively:

And almost immediately the first ovaries appeared:

Added after 2 minutes
The extreme trellises must be placed on stretch marks, otherwise the grapes will regrow and he will bend them.

it is possible and so, but I did it differently - I connected the tops of the trellises with a bar. The photo will continue)

Here in this May photo you can see the shadow from the bar connecting the upper ends of the trellises:

By mid-May, the shoots have grown to the second wire:

I did another watering - also about a ton.
We pulled up all the rows of wire. The shoots began to grow so intensively that they had to tie up almost every day:

In late May, early June, the grapes bloomed:

And the shoots grew taller than me:

During flowering, as they write, nothing can be done with the grapes - neither water nor spray, and even approach less often, except to tie up a protruding shoot so that it does not break off.

10 days after flowering, berry ovaries appeared:

And he sprayed it with colloidal sulfur from all kinds of fungal diseases - traces are visible on the leaves:

by mid-June, the berries were already like this:

Of course, according to the rules, it would have been necessary to thin out the ovaries, leave one for the escape, but the hand did not rise!

And he planted the Kishmish Radiant variety (in another place, there will be a separate trellis):
http://io.ua/26972274n.jpg

Since mid-June, the grapes were left to themselves: there was no need to tie up - he clung to his mustache himself. I sprayed it a couple of times - together with plums and apricots with fungicides, and watered it one more time.
The need for watering is determined by the following plant "signals": if the tip (the so-called "crown") of the shoot is bent down in the form of a question mark - there is enough moisture, no need to water. if it looks up, it needs to be watered.

Well, that's how I came to the current time.

Here are the last photos (last Saturday 20.07) by varieties:

Frumoasa Albă
http://io.ua/26972319n.jpg

Muscat Summer:
http://io.ua/26972320n.jpg

Muscat White:
http://io.ua/26972322n.jpg

Codryanka + Delight:
http://io.ua/26972324n.jpg

Here are two extreme bushes of an unknown variety (which I planted in two-year-olds with unblown buds), there are no photos: the ovaries are small, you can't see it behind the foliage. Their sleeves have grown thin. but there are good shoots of this year, from which next year, I hope, will make good sleeves :)

I read it three times, I still don't understand
1.3. Wood older than a year should not carry, therefore, it should be as small as possible (in covering varieties, the perennial trunk, the so-called "sleeve" should reach at an angle to the first wire, that is, be about 50 cm) and buds on it should cut in the bud.
and don't the grapes bear fruit only on the green wood of this year? If you cut out all the buds in the bud on the sleeve, then where will the green fruiting shoots come from for the next year? And then how to change the perennial sleeves (item 4), if all the buds are cut out?

If new sleeves are not needed this year - these shoots are cut out, but not completely - some are cut into one bud - this is called "replacement shoot" - someday a new sleeve will grow out of it). Everything else is temporary: the fruit arrow - the year it grows like a green fruit-bearing shoot, the year bears fruit and is completely cut out. Fruiting annual shoots are cut out together with the arrow.
only the green shoot of this year also bears fruit. The next year, it coarsens (sleeve?) And releases only green shoots, but does not bear fruit itself. then what do you call "fruit arrow" and what do you cut out with what?
In order for the grapes to bear fruit every year, a so-called "fruit link" is created: in the fall, two shoots are left on the sleeve: long (6-12 buds, depending on age and variety), this is the above "fruiting arrow"
You just cut it out above ?! (see highlighted)

Added after 6 minutes
Somewhere I read a couple more tricks:
- grapes, like all plants, use leaves for photosynthesis, so stepchildren break out, leaving 1-2 leaves to increase leaf mass and improve nutrition
- when the bunch ripens, the shading leaves are cut off, improving its illumination and thereby increasing the sugar content in the berries

and don't the grapes bear fruit only on the green wood of this year? If you cut out all the buds in the bud on the sleeve, then where will the green fruiting shoots come from for the next year? And then how to change the perennial sleeves (item 4), if all the buds are cut out?

You did not read very carefully in my first post that grapes bear fruit on the shoots of the current year (green), which grew on the shoots of the PAST year. Those. if a green shoot grew on an old vine more than a year old, then either a brush will not be tied at all on it, or a small one. For this, a "fruit link" is made from the fruiting arrow and the replacement knot.
Here's how I will prune grapes this fall:
In the spring, I cut off each future sleeve (one-year shoot of last year) to a length of about 70 cm. I left the top three buds (I plucked out the rest of the lower ones). This year, from these three buds, three green shoots have grown, on which one or two good clusters are now ripening (fruiting on the shoot of the current year, which grew on the shoot of last year).
This fall, these three green shoots will ripen: the bark will turn from green to brown, and the shoots themselves will crunch when slightly bent (a common test for maturity of shoots). Of the three shoots, I will choose the two thickest and most ripe, and cut the third one (it was a spare). Then I cut one of these two shoots into 6 buds - this will be the fruiting arrow, and the second I will cut into three buds (one of them is a spare) - this will be a replacement knot. These shoots next year will already be shoots of last year, on which, in turn, well-fruiting green shoots will grow. In the fall of next year, I will completely cut out the above fruiting arrow, and I will cut off the three shoots that have grown on the above replacement knot: one for 8 buds (new fruiting arrow), the second for 3 buds (new replacement knot), and the third will be cut off completely (he was a spare, in case one of the shoots disappeared). Thus, there will always be green shoots that have grown on the shoots of the previous year (which bear fruit well).

As for the rest of your questions, you yourself are confused. Reread carefully what I wrote earlier. I wish you a good understanding of it yourself.

I have soil - the former bottom of the river, such as fertile silt, cucumbers and other garden crops grow well every year.
The groundwater level at the top of the plot for the garden is 2 meters, at the bottom (exit to the meadow) - about 80 cm.
Where do you think it is better to plant the vine, Nikolai Vasilievich?

Honestly, I don't know what to advise.I have little experience and only on my site: a meter-long black soil, then loam, and I did not get to the ground level even when I was digging a septic tank filtering well - 3.5 m.

I would look at a specialized forum. For example http://forum.vinograd.info/
As far as I know, this is the largest forum of winegrowers in Ukraine (and most likely in runet)

Added after 7 minutes
Sorry to crawl into your topic, but a few personal (dug out on the Internet and applied in practice) comments.
1. a large leaf mass leads to a weakening of the plant, so I regularly stepchildren young shoots. that is, I pinch the edges of unnecessary branches literally by 3 mm.
2. Be sure to cut off all branches into 4 leaves (internodes) after the formation of the grape cluster for good ripening. Well, if a lot of gozids are tied up, I leave no more than 2 for the escape - that is, 4 for the bush. I form a bush for 2 vines.
3. winter (Chernihiv region) in the ground, having previously wrapped agrofibre outside the water-proof side.

Why apologize - the post is clearly in the topic, I am grateful to you for your advice.

I know that there are a lot of nuances, both in general and in individual varieties. I will delve into and apply them consciously as I gain experience.

But, as it seems to me, in the first post I outlined the basic principles in growing grapes. But there are also a lot of nuances that the special science of "ampylography" deals with (the only plant awarded a separate science is grapes! The rest of the plants are dealt with by botany)

Added after 12 minutes
And it is recommended to prune the grapes in the fall, in the spring the vine cries harder at the image.

Correctly in smart books, they recommend cutting the bush in the spring for the first four years, neglecting the crying of the vine (I wrote about this in post # 7). And then - only in the fall. Although, if you cut off from the first year in the fall, there will be no big trouble. It's just that, as I understand it, young branches are weak and some buds may not overwinter. If pruned in the fall, the buds left behind can overwinter. And with spring pruning, there are plenty to choose from. And in a young plant, the vine is thin - it will not pay much, it will heal quickly.

Added after 14 minutes
- grapes, like all plants, use leaves for photosynthesis, so stepchildren break out, leaving 1-2 leaves to increase leaf mass and improve nutrition

Perhaps they do this, but I have not yet grasped all the nuances. I didn’t stepchild, and there weren’t too many stepsons. In addition, I read that there are varieties that bear fruit on the stepsons. And not all techniques are applicable to all varieties. There are specific features of agricultural technology, which are usually indicated in the descriptions of specific varieties.
The same applies to the opening of the bunches to direct sunlight. Many varieties, on the contrary, hide from the sun's rays, putting paper caps on the bunches or even wrapping the bunches in burdock leaves (which then dry out, forming a kind of "spacesuit") so that the skin of the berries is tender, not coarse under the direct rays of the sun.
I have trellises from north to south, the shoots are not cut off, at noon the bunches are covered with leaves. And I see that this does not prevent them from ripening.

Jarik, with your permission, I will criticize your grape bush. It contains typical mistakes that are typical of almost all amateur gardeners who are not armed, so to speak, with the "basics of theory." At least, I saw similar errors from my relatives and neighbors on the site:
1. Judging by the fact that your brushes are generally small and they grow chaotically along the bush at the top, bottom and middle, you do not observe (probably because you don’t know, but I think you can only learn them for a long time and carefully observing the growth of plants and in any way better to know them, having studied the theory based on the thousand-year experience of winegrowers.I forgive some pathos and complex sentences :)) two Main Rules: 1) The best fruit is a green shoot that grew on the shoot of last year. 2) rule of symmetry number 1: the upper bud bears fruit best of all, and in order for all the buds to bear fruit, the one-year-old shoot must be tied horizontally - and all the buds will be upper.
Your photo shows that green shoots were left for fruiting, which grew both on last year's wood and on an older one, and at the same time the buds were at different heights.

2. The bush has a stem (stem from the ground to branching), which, due to its thickness, is difficult to bend to the ground when covering and, as a result, the grapes can freeze out. The sleeves are long and branched. That also does not contribute to a good shelter of the bush. The stem and long branched sleeves take place when growing non-covering grape varieties in the regions much to the south of Kiev. Do you grow a covering grape variety? Then the stem should not be, or rather, it should be degenerated into the so-called. "head" - a thickening at the top of the underground part of the bush, from which the arms grow directly.
3. If you, as you write, stop covering it, then there is a high probability that with frosts below 25 degrees (and they happen in our country near Kharkov, and in you near Kiev), it will simply freeze out, regardless of the thinness of the shoots, but if anything remains alive, it will hurt and bear fruit badly.

Everything can be corrected. I would do this for autumn pruning:
1. I would cut off two branches from the branch of the trunk, leaving one, judging by the photo, the left one.
2. on this left branch (this will be a sleeve) left the first two shoots: the one that is visible in the upper left corner of the 4th photo and the next one, growing from the opposite side (in order to observe the rule of symmetry No. 2), everything else would be cut off completely.
3. The first shoot would be cut by 6-8 buds (fruiting arrow), and the second - by 3 buds (replacement knot).
4. Covered for the winter
5. In spring, both of these shoots would be tied horizontally to the lower wire - so that all the buds, both on the fruiting arrow and on the replacement knot, were at the same height.
6. I would leave 5-6 shoots from the root growth, which I would probably have, from which I would choose three more sleeves next fall.

As an example, I will give my experience in correcting errors.

Three years ago, I planted 4 grape bushes in different parts of the garden, but they disappeared the next year - they didn't cover them, they froze. In one, the root miraculously survived and gave one powerful shoot, on which several small tassels grew, but the berry was tasty (varietal, after all). I didn’t take pictures because there was nothing special to brag about. Then, for this escape, I built a small trellis near the bush. And when planting a bush at the bottom of the pit, I poured a bucket of rubble and stuck a 50mm plastic pipe (but this is not entirely correct - drainage watering should be about a meter from the bush)

This spring, I tied this shoot horizontally to the lower wire, plucked out all the buds below the wire, and left 12 buds along the wire (which, of course, is a lot, but while I was busy - I accidentally broke off 3 buds):

In addition to this thick shoot, there was a thinner pair - they tied them to a perpendicular trellis and left three buds on each)

At the end of April, the bush threw out large clusters of ovaries:

At the end of May, it began to bloom:
http://io.ua/26972218n.jpg

Within a week, it blooms in full force:

In the middle of the last photo, you can see a small shoot - I accidentally broke off the main kidney - it grew out of an additional one.

Here the berries faded and began to knit:

These brushes were at the end of June:

Now the berry is already starting to ripen, though there is no fresh photo, but one of these days I will do it.

My hand did not rise and I did not thin out the ovaries (3-4 clusters formed on one shoot) - I wanted more grapes and the clusters turned out to be a little loose. I will regulate it next year.

I will not argue. In the photo there is a three-year-old bush of grapes. The year before last I bought it in Demeter. The name has not survived, so I will be grateful if someone can identify the variety.

looks like a gift to Zaporozhye:
Ripening period - early-middle (120-130 days)
Bunch weight - 800 - 1000 grams, individual up to 2.5 kg
Berry weight - 12-16 grams (25 x 33) and more individual reach 20-25
Bushes - vigorous
Frost resistance -24 ° С
Disease resistance - high.

Gift to Zaporizhzhia, FVC-3-3 (FV-6-6 x (V-70-90 x R-65)).Bred in the OV "Grape Elita" (Ukraine). Author Klyuchikov E.N. Ripening period 120-130 days. The growth force of the bush is great. Ripening of shoots is good. The berry is green-white, oval, weighing 10-12 g and more (up to 25 grams), 25 x 33, harmonious taste, fleshy juicy flesh, thin skin. Seeds 1-3. The bunch is very large, conical or cylindrical-conical, weighing 800-1100 grams and larger (up to 2.5 kg), dense, less often loose, elegant. Experienced growers recommend picking the leaves before ripening to improve the color of the berry. Hangs until frost. Sugar content 15-18 percent, acidity 6-8 g / l. Fruitful shoots 60-75 percent. The number of clusters per fruitful shoot is 1.6-2.0. The load on the bush is 35-40 eyes. The rooting rate of cuttings is very good - the seedlings are vigorous. The compatibility with rootstocks and varieties is good. It begins to bear fruit in the second year after planting, less often in the third. Pruning fruit vines for 8-12 eyes. When underloaded, it is able to yield crops on stepchildren. Prone to overload, should be normalized. If you allow the overload of the bush with the harvest, the berry loses its taste, becomes watery. Wasps damage moderately. Good drought tolerance. Frost resistance -24 ° С. Resistance to fungal diseases 2.0-2.5 points. With a functional female type of flower, requires replanting of a pollinator. Pollinated well. When treated with gibberelin, the berries are lengthened, and most of the berries become seedless, the weight of the berry and bunch increases. Stable, harvestable. Differs in high transportability and keeping quality of berries. In heavy rains, the berry may crack.

my dad in Zaporozhye just grows grapes using the dacha method (like yours) - and teens and shos will grow up. So excellent grape juice from Laura extracts up to 40 liters. From two bushes. planted - for a gazebo.

looks like a gift to Zaporozhye

I agree, I thought so too.
Here is a Gift to Zaporozhye from the reference book:
http://vinograd.info/images/gallery/img/115/1235841567_pz-10.jpg
The leaf is the same, without a cut, like the Jarik grapes. And the berry is very similar.

With your permission, I will not follow your advice. Firstly, because they are not objective and contradictory, and secondly, the shaping of grapes is one of the ways to grow it in the northern regions in an uncovered culture. When I was still a schoolboy, I remember an article in one magazine, which described the experience of one gardener growing cover grape varieties in Murom with the formation of a stem. And Murom, in latitude above Kiev.
From the fact that I cut out all the branches except one on the trunk, its thickness will not change from this

Added after 4 minutes
looks like a gift to Zaporozhye:
Ripening period - early-medium (120-130 days)
Bunch weight - 800 - 1000 grams, individual up to 2.5 kg
Berry weight - 12-16 grams (25 x 33) and more individual reach 20-25
Bushes - vigorous
Frost resistance -24 ° С
Disease resistance - high.

Gift to Zaporizhzhia, FVC-3-3 (FV-6-6 x (V-70-90 x R-65)). Bred in the OV "Grape Elita" (Ukraine). Author Klyuchikov E.N. Ripening period 120-130 days. The growth force of the bush is great. Ripening of shoots is good. The berry is green-white, oval, weighing 10-12 g and more (up to 25 grams), 25 x 33, harmonious taste, fleshy juicy flesh, thin skin. Seeds 1-3. The bunch is very large, conical or cylindrical-conical, weighing 800-1100 grams and larger (up to 2.5 kg), dense, less often loose, elegant. Experienced growers recommend picking the leaves before ripening to improve the color of the berry. Hangs until frost. Sugar content 15-18 percent, acidity 6-8 g / l. Fruitful shoots 60-75 percent. The number of clusters per fruitful shoot is 1.6-2.0. The load on the bush is 35-40 eyes. The rooting rate of cuttings is very good - the seedlings are vigorous. The compatibility with rootstocks and varieties is good. It begins to bear fruit in the second year after planting, less often in the third. Pruning fruit vines for 8-12 eyes. When underloaded, it is able to yield crops on stepchildren. Prone to overload, should be normalized. If you allow the overload of the bush with the harvest, the berry loses its taste, becomes watery. Wasps damage moderately. Good drought tolerance. Frost resistance -24 ° С. Resistance to fungal diseases 2.0-2.5 points. With a functional female type of flower, requires replanting of a pollinator. Pollinated well. When treated with gibberelin, the berries are lengthened, and most of the berries become seedless, the weight of the berry and bunch increases. Stable, harvestable.Differs in high transportability and keeping quality of berries. In heavy rains, the berry may crack.

my dad in Zaporozhye just grows grapes using the dacha method (like yours) - and teens and shos will grow up. So excellent grape juice from Laura extracts up to 40 liters. From two bushes. planted - for a gazebo.
Similar. There is no pollinator nearby, I do not process anything, the bush is really very vigorous, it throws out lashes up to 5 meters, ripens early, wasps hit hard (last year I had to remove it when it was a little ripe).
Not so that I have a completely "summer cottage" method, I try to follow the basic rules such as polarity and horizontal, but without fanaticism. Firstly, there is a lot of confusing and contradictory information (this thread is a very eloquent example of this), and secondly, the shadow really does not hurt

With your permission, I will not follow your advice. First, because they are not objective and contradictory.
So no one will bondage. Everyone is the owner of his cockroaches! )

Only now to try to grow a covering grape variety as non-covering? Your own business. If you succeed - sign up on the forum. It will be interesting to see the report.

And about bias - of course, I expressed my subjective opinion - but how is it possible otherwise?

I brought a photo of my 1-year-old grape, grown as I described it - and where did the contradictions you saw appear?

As promised, I took a picture today of the corrected bush above as an example:

Of course, I can see it myself - I did not remove the extra ovaries and the brushes turned out to be loose. Next year I will already regulate.

And the first harvest of plum was harvested by Rainclaud White There were not many - dozens of such plums:

Added after 6 minutes
but I have a big problem for growing grapes - the groundwater is 0.7 -0.5 m. but so far this spring only those bushes that have been completely in the water for more than 2 months have disappeared.

By the way, the Comrad Trust asked me here how it is best for him to plant a vineyard on a plot with a high GWL. I could not answer him - my site is on a hillock. Can you, Elena, share your experience in more detail?

Added after 6 minutes
I photographed a sheet of my Gift to Zaporozhye. Compare.

Yes, your sheet is clearly different both from the Jarik sheet and from the sheet on the photo I have given from the reference book.

I don't have that sort. I can’t say anything weighty.

Can you, Elena, share your experience in more detail?

And what is the experience? While sad, two good bushes just soped into the dust, and after wintering well before that, and then water came and bye-bye.
abid, yes.
I planted in the winter, planted according to the rules, the pit was a cubic meter - I covered it with fresh humus with earth, then I planted seedlings under the southern wall of the pit and covered it, immediately covered it with earth 15 cm from above for the winter.
Grapes are 3 years old, different varieties 2 lore, 2 keshi, 2 talismans, 2 kodryanki, 2 gifts to Zaporozhye. Now minus 1 talisman and 1 PP.
I planted grapes solely for the occasion, dad ordered seedlings to a friend, and then he refused. It was a pity to throw it away, so I planted it. But. He sows nothing, the Lord grows everything. After landing, during the winter I studied the materiel, forced my husband to make a trellis. In short, it grows, but it will become for him.

By the way, the Comrad Trust asked me here how it is best for him to plant a vineyard on a plot with a high GWL. I could not answer him
I went to your link: a good resource of winegrowers. As I understand it, in my case (I will plant it on a hillock, where the GWL is not closer than 1 meter even in spring) is not critical. Only water less. The main thing is that it is not stagnant saline water. And so some people even have springs in their gardens. :)

They also advise under each future planting site of the cuttings to locally make embankments in the simplest formwork. Well, this is if the water is very close, but you want to grow a vine.

Everything will work out for you! The main thing is to start!
Pick up varieties by autumn, read about the peculiarities of autumn planting, and "on long winter evenings", until the beginning of the next season, study the issue, especially molding (IMHO, this is the most important thing).Moreover, the first season, you don't need to do anything special - watering and sprinkling. Molding - for the 2nd season. In the first season, the trellis is not required - you can tie it to the stakes.
Yelena A. over there, at least 2 bushes are gone, so 8 are left. But an invaluable experience appeared!
I have 4 plantings of seedlings on a meter-long chernozem (they never managed to become bushes) disappeared until I began to delve into the theory. Although I had read something before, I did not understand the essence.
In general, I wish you success in this business!

And YOUR grapes are tastier than the store market! This is, of course, my subjective opinion)

nickvas, according to the pictures you have a neat vine on your site, how often do you weed?

In the spring he worked the soil with a motor-cultivator (wrote about this in post No. 9).
And a couple of times we weeded the vegetable beds planted next to the vineyard and between the rows (while the bushes were young - onions and asparagus beans were planted), at the same time weed the weeds and near the grapes.

Of course, in the mind, it is necessary to mulch, but so far the hands have not reached :(

Eh, it was necessary to also mention the garden in the title of the topic! Well, okay, I will not open a separate topic in my garden, I will describe it here.

Slowly, as it ripens, we harvest. Signals of early grape varieties (Codryanka, Laura, Timur, Summer Muscat) have already been eaten, ripening:
- Kesha:

The peach is almost ripe - fruits of 80-120 grams:

Since the beginning of the week, we have already collected 3 buckets. Here is yesterday's third:

Renet Simerenko's apples were slightly tanned in the sun - they are still ripening before the beginning of October (the tree was heavily gnawed by hares the year before last.

You can clearly see how the fruit buds ripen on the Vystavochnaya pear - next year, I hope, there will be the first flowering, and if you're lucky, fruiting :):

The repaired raspberry Polka, planted last spring, showed its fruits:

The row of Bulgarian Ruby raspberries and two rows of thornless blackberries planted last fall grew and lay on the ground. I made trellises for them yesterday (I didn't have time to pull the wire):

Today I will stretch the wire and tie the shoots.

Ask the moderators, they will change the name as you need.
Thanks for the tip. I asked.

Can't be distinguished from the Crimean ones.
Thanks for the compliment! But this year, unfortunately, I was greedy - it was necessary to remove half, or at least a third, of the ovaries - they would have been larger. And there are quite a few (% 20) small ones - 50-60 grams each.


buy cuttings from you
With great pleasure I will cut the root cuttings and send them to the address indicated by you, and even without money: beer: (I still earn my living for others), but since I do not do this professionally, I can not give any guarantee of germination.
I would advise you to buy seedlings in some local nursery, where the seedlings are zoned. For myself, for example, I stopped at the local, in the Kharkiv region, nursery "Berry" http://yagodka.kharkov.ua/ - that I bought strawberries from them, that I did not notice raspberries - the plants grew one to one as in the picture ... I also bought a couple of hazelnut seedlings from them, but they have not yet grown to fruit. True, according to the info from their site, they are not engaged in retail mailing - only in batches of at least 1000 pieces. seedlings, which, of course, is too much for an individual garden. :(

when I make room for the raspberries, I will ask you for cuttings.
No problem! At the end of September, the beginning of October, I will trim the raspberries and I can dig up root cuttings.

at least symbolically
Well, maybe so :)

Who knows, but whether it is necessary to shorten the whips of the grapes? And then on mine they lifted 3 meters, and where and 4. On the vine, 2 bunches.

It is quite possible to shorten it and even need it to an acceptable length (according to the height of the trellis).
True, he can let go of his stepsons - so cut them off too.

I do not like one of my plums at all - I bought it as Dessert Early (http://shoni.kiev.ua/desertnaya-rannyaya/), but I gave several signaling fruits this year, - it is not clear that - some Hungarian, sour and not tasty :(. And on the neighboring abandoned area - a gorgeous plum grows - without any processing and pruning - all living branches (and there are more dried ones than living ones) are covered with round blue plums of excellent taste!
In general, I decided to re-graft my misunderstanding - the root is good!
Two weeks ago, on Monday, July 29 (already according to the books, the deadline for vaccinations), I planted 3 eyes on the lower side branches, wrapped it with cling film:

Yesterday I opened vaccinations. Two seem to have taken root:

One, alas, no - fell off as soon as I unwound the film:

Well, 66% survival rate is also a good result)

I smeared the vaccinations with garden varnish - now spring will show how they have taken root!

He pulled galvanized wire onto new trellises and tied up raspberries and a studless blackberry:

Idared's winter apples ripen slowly:

Thanks for the development of the topic .. For now. unfortunately no practical questions .. very nice to include info about the garden. )
Thank you! I am glad that there are such grateful readers: rolleyes:

Of course, in my main activities (in the army - weapons, now retired - IT in telecommunications), I am very far from construction and gardening with viticulture, and the fact that for me a new discovery - for a knowledgeable, professional person - is a simple banality, which is not even worth mentioning for granted. But maybe my experience is good because I sometimes describe banalities here, which are far from banalities for me, and I give a photo of my garden as it is, that's how it turned out for me, and I show it. If anyone sees any flaws, I will be glad to any criticism: beer:

And I am grateful to the site administrators that they satisfied my request and added the title of this topic: beer:

in the 1st decade of August, the tops of young grape seedlings need to be pinned. What is it like? : rolleyes:

Shoot growth comes from the so-called. crowns - the tops of the shoot, on which new nodes and leaves are constantly formed. If you pinch off this top with your fingers or just crush it, it will stop forming new nodes and leaves, i.e. the shoot will stop growing (there will be no new nodes, there will be a slight growth due to the expansion of the existing internodes). After pinching, the shoot will thicken and the growth of stepchildren will be stimulated, which must be broken out (while small) or cut out. The essence of all this is to grow by autumn a thick (at least 7mm thick at the base) shoot without branching, a future sleeve. And in the spring, on its lower part (from the ground to the lower wire of the trellis), pluck out the buds, and on the upper part (above the lower wire) leave three buds, cut off the rest. Tie this "tail" with three buds horizontally to the lower wire.

Shoot growth comes from the so-called. crowns - the tops of the shoot, on which new nodes and leaves are constantly formed. If you pinch off this top with your fingers or just crush it, it will stop forming new nodes and leaves, i.e. the shoot will stop growing (there will be no new nodes, there will be a slight growth due to the expansion of the existing internodes). After pinching, the shoot will thicken and the growth of stepchildren will be stimulated, which must be broken out (while small) or cut out. The essence of all this is to grow by autumn a thick (at least 7mm thick at the base) shoot without branching, a future sleeve. And in the spring, on its lower part (from the ground to the lower wire of the trellis), pluck out the buds, and on the upper part (above the lower wire) leave three buds, cut off the rest. Tie this "tail" with three buds horizontally to the lower wire.

I did not know this, and when I saw how my sister's husband cut them off, I yelled at him: D

Two of my grape bushes are of an unknown variety: the seller assured that he had confused the varieties, but one of them is pink, and the other is white table varieties with good taste. I believed it, it turned out - in vain: two identical bushes with blue fruits similar to Rapture grew.
In general, I decided to re-graft. I read on the Internet that until the middle of August, you can inoculate with an eye "green on green" and, in fact, the technology of this business.
At a neighbor who has been dealing with grapes for a long time, I cut off a green shoot from the varieties Pink Flamingo, Anniversary of the Kherson Dachnik and. I forgot the name of the third grade. but not scary - I'll clarify later.

I cut off the kidney with a strip of wood, while cutting it from top to bottom and made the lower cut with the second cut at a large angle in the form of a small wedge. put in clean water:

On the grafted vine, I cut off a piece of the stem of the same length, with a nest for the inoculation wedge, and attached the inoculation.The wedge entered the nest and the vaccine held itself:

I wrapped it with a strip of food grade tape:

Similarly, I planted two more vines:

Now in two weeks I will find out whether they have taken root or not.

Two of my grape bushes are of an unknown variety: the seller assured that he had confused the varieties, but one of them is pink, and the other is white table varieties with good taste. I believed it, it turned out - in vain: two identical bushes with blue fruits similar to Rapture grew. ...


Delight is kind of like a white grape variety, and has never been blue. :)

Delight is kind of like a white grape variety, and has never been blue. :)

I agree: beer :, just Delight is white, but there is also Delight Red, Delight Blue and Delight Black, there are quite a few subtypes of Delight (http://vinograd.info/sorta/sorta-vinograda/v.html). The expert commission (the neighbor and me :)) determined that the bushes of unknown breed indicated in my previous post are the same and are most likely Blue Delight, but we will not give fingers for cutting! : D.

In general, so that there would be less uncertainty, I decided to re-graft.

Two weeks ago, I put braces on an Exhibition pear (it grew like a cypress, next year it should bloom for the first time):

The day before yesterday I removed the guy wires - the branches are already growing at the right angle:

I cut off the extra (in my opinion) branches into a ring, and I will cut off the remaining long annual shoots in the spring for fruiting.

And I decided on the variety of my peach:

The conclusion of the "expert commission" mentioned in the previous post is the Golden Jubilee (http://www.vniispk.ru/peach.php?key=4)

Thank you very much for the topic! I read avidly!: Rolleyes:

Please tell us more about raspberries. For example, my situation is this: we inherited a raspberry tree, with a very good variety. Raspberries are really large, bear fruit almost all summer, delicious. But I do not know at all how to care for it: o Every spring I cut the pagons up to 60 cm, remove the dried stems and that's it. I noticed that every year the raspberries grow more and more, they swing up so high that they are ogogo, and the berries are getting smaller. Rather, they are, but not so large. How to fix this whole thing?

But I do not know at all how to care for her.Every spring I cut pagons up to 60 cm, remove dried stems and that's it.
I do the cutting of the two-year-old shoots that have bore fruit and the thinning of the ones that have grown this year in the fall (I plan this event in early September), in the spring it is not good to do it. I thin it so that there is at least 10 cm between the shoots, I do not cut it in any way - I leave it as it is.

In the spring I do pruning for fruiting.
There are two methods of pruning for fruiting. I practice both. Well, I will describe both.
The first one can be called "simple", it is cut off once - in the spring, as soon as the green leaves hatch (well, they seem a little, later it will not work) I cut off the annual shoots (and there should not be others - all the old ones are cut out in the fall, but new ones have not yet grown) the tops - the upper bud, literally 1 cm otchikivayu. This procedure, carried out on time, leads to the fact that fruit twigs grow along the entire length of the shoot and the berries will be throughout the shoot (without such pruning, only the top bears fruit)

The second one can be called "double pruning" - it is carried out in two seasons: the first time - in the first decade of June, on young green shoots that have grown by this time at a height of at least 70-80 cm, I cut off the tops. This leads to the fact that the shoot begins to branch - by autumn 2-4 branches, secondary shoots, grow on it. And the second pruning is the same as in the 1st method: as soon as the leaves appear, I cut off the tops of the secondary branches. The effect is the same - fruit branches along the entire length of both the main shoot and secondary ones.

Added after 50 minutes
I cut pagons up to 60 cm

Yes, I forgot to add: heavy pruning in early spring leads to an increase in the number of new shoots. Therefore, if you need to get more shoots (say, one bush was purchased and it needs to be propagated) - a bush planted in autumn in the spring should be cut to the very level of the ground, and planted in spring - immediately after planting, and of course, watered abundantly. If, like regretting, and not cutting off, then the planted plant, in most cases, will bloom, bear fruit, please the owners, etc. it will dry up in the fall, without giving a single new shoot - the root was injured during planting, i.e.weak, and his strength was enough, and for this they (forces) were directed primarily to perform only the generative function - to grow seeds, and for the vegetative (growth of new shoots) these forces were not enough. I was convinced from my own experience - out of five purchased seedlings of large-fruited Tajik raspberries (the seller said - I don't know the name of the variety, my relatives brought it from Tajikistan, but buy it - you won't regret it!), Which I was sorry to cut out of inexperience, only one released new shoots. The rest have borne fruit and dried up: o

Now, in order to improve their growth and fruiting, do I need to cut them well in the spring or already take care of them, according to the methods you described? (They are already getting over a year old)

If more than a year has passed and they have given new growth - take care of the first, simple method (for the second method of double pruning, the time - the first decade of June - has already been missed) - now in September, cut out the sprouted shoots and, if there are small and closely growing ones, thin them out. And in the spring, when green leaves appear, cut off the tops.
And even better, if there is a desire to propagate, plant part of the young shoots in September: dig holes on a bayonet, between the holes 40-50 cm.Cut the root of the shoot from the mother bush with a shovel and plant it together with a lump of earth in the holes, deepening by 5 centimeters than they grew. Water, mulch and cut to ground level in spring, water and freshen mulch.

The Forest Beauty pear ripened to a removable maturity:

Not enough, of course, but this is just the beginning - the tree is still very small, but the branches are growing, the buds are knitting - next year, I hope, there will be more.

And Talgar Beauty (4 pcs.) Is still maturing:

And also fruit buds ripen next year

And the last brush of the grape harvest this year before harvesting is Codryanka + Delight:

Where are the fruit? Show. Or maybe I cut off the branches with fruit buds. :(

In this photo, I circled the fruit branches with buds - these are short (1 cm or slightly more) branches, on the tip of which there are large rounded buds (I apologize for the large size of the photo, but this is more visible):

In general, I'll write a little :) and describe how I understand this botany in the context of what and why should be done with a tree so that it bears fruit well. I will not cite other people's quotes and illustrations, i.e. I will purely describe my point of view, which is based on reading specialized literature, Internet resources and on my own experience and observations.
Now I will describe all this in words, and on the weekend I will take pictures and illustrate.

I. Pome breeds
The main representatives are apple and pear (as well as mountain ash, quince and others, which have several seeds in the form of sunflower seeds inside the fruit, but I will write only on the example of apple and pear, and if I do not mention the breed, then this is common for apple and pear trees, and, accordingly, for some features I will call these breeds).

The formation of a tree can be divided into two tasks: the formation of a separate branch and the formation of the crown of the tree as a whole.

The fruit bud is formed within 3 years (3 growing seasons):
1st: an annual branch grows, the organ of growth is the apical bud, from which internodes are formed. By the end of the season, this is a twig 20-100 cm long with nodes, which have one leaf and a small bud at the petiole of this leaf. At the tip of this branch, there is a large combined bud, it seems, it is called apical or something like that (generative-vegetative, that is, it can either bloom the next year, or release a new shoot, or both at the same time)
2nd: If this, already one-year-old, branch is not cut off, left as it is, then the apical bud can bloom and / or release a new shoot, and the rest of the buds are those that from the beginning to the middle of the branch most likely will not even wake up, the rest either will release a new twig, or (much less likely) form a small rosette of leaves with a small bud in the middle, which next year will grow into a fruit twig, the so-called. ringlet with a full-fledged fruit bud.
It is in this second season that you need to prune in order to direct the "life" of this branch in the right direction: a) if you want a strong skeletal branch to grow from this branch (this is if this branch grows close to the trunk or skeletal branch) , then it needs to be strongly cut by 1-3 buds, i.e. leave 1-3 buds on it from the beginning, while the upper bud should be directed outward or slightly to the side, if you want to change the direction of the branch. Then a strong shoot (or even two or three) will grow from the upper left bud in this second season, the buds below it will give smaller shoots or dry out, but, with a high probability, they will not give fruit formations b) if you want the branch to become overgrown with fruit branches, then you need to cut off the apical bud, while, if the branch is too long, shorten it by 1/3 of the length, but no more than half (if you cut off more than half, there will be option a), then the following after the cutting point one or two- three buds will give shoots (not as strong as in option a), and the rest of the buds, in the bulk, form a rosette of leaves with a small bud in the middle (future fruit twig), and some of the buds, of course, can dry out.
3rd: new shoots become annual branches (see above for what to do with them), and fruit branches grow from rosettes of leaves with a small bud - annual annulus (they have degenerate short internodes resembling rings) from a centimeter to 3-5 , at the end of which there are large generative-vegetative buds, which in the next, 4th season will bloom and give new shoots or ringlets (a so-called complex perennial ringlet is formed, which will bear fruit for several more years)

Why this happens, I think this way: in natural conditions, a tree, like any living organism, strives to capture a larger living space and reproduce offspring. Therefore, the apical buds bear fruit - and the illumination is better and the fruits will fall farther. When a tree broke branches for some external reason - it strove to regain living space as soon as possible - new shoots grew from the remaining extreme buds, but the unused generative energy (maybe it is called somehow differently, but I understand that) was sent to the rest of the remaining buds, and since they are equivalent to each other, this energy went to them equally and they almost all became fruit.

The second task is the formation of the crown of the tree as a whole.
If the branch is in the shade, then photosynthesis in its leaves is weak and it degenerates and becomes bare. Therefore, it is necessary to cut (first of all) the extra annual branches that shade (or will shade when they grow up) of others - they grow inside the crown, growing upward (bear weaker than horizontal or inclined ones) and generally thickening the crown, as well as crossing (from two crossing must be left one) and competitors (branches growing at a low angle to other branches). And at the same time, observe the subordination of the branches - so that the branches are not longer than the branches of the previous order, i.e. on which they grow.

Somewhere like that. illustrating pictures, I repeat, I will try to make for the weekend.

If interested, I will describe my vision of botany for stone fruit (cherry, apricot, plum).

we want :) thank you very much for the informative topic! if you showed in the photo which branches of a peach to cut, I would be very grateful. and then there is a 3-year-old shaggy peach, I know that it was necessary to cut it in the summer, and that they did not understand.

In the summer, a thinning pruning is done for the peach: the extra green branches (grown this year) are completely cut out - the crowns growing inward, intersecting and strongly thickening, especially the tops.
I have two young peaches growing - at the weekend I will make them such a thinning pruning and step by step, so to speak, I will photograph this process. Pruning for fruiting is done in the spring. Then I will also make a photo report.
In general, the peach in terms of pruning stands apart from other breeds and the main idea of ​​pruning a peach is as follows (maybe I will repeat myself, do not judge strictly):
If the peach is not cut, it bears fruit anyway, but new branches grow stronger on the periphery (and the peach bears fruit on the branches of last year) and all its "vital" forces go to the periphery to ensure the growth of new branches and fruits. As a result, the bases of the branches receive less nutrition, moreover, they are shaded and, as a result, become bare and begin to hurt and die within 4-5 years, and with them the lush tops of these branches. That's it, there is no tree :(
To avoid this, peach pruning should be aimed at the following goals:
- increased illumination in the middle of the bush (tree)
- a decrease in the load (both vegetative - the growth of new branches, and generative - fruit formation) on the periphery, i.e. at the ends of the branches.
- preparation of replacing old branches with new ones

For this:
- cut out all branches growing inward
- cut off all annual twigs at the ends of the branches at a length of 30-50 cm from the tip
- the remaining annual branches are thinned out so that there is 10-15 cm between them and they are placed along the length of the branch more or less evenly
- the branch located closer to the trunk is cut into a replacement knot: cut it into 2-3 buds, from which strong shoots will grow. The strongest is left, the rest are cut out. So the replacement knot can be kept in this state for several years. When it becomes clear that the main branch has already grown old (the growth is only at the end), it is cut off and the branch is allowed to grow from the replacement knot.

all of the above (thinning) can be done in the fall and spring (start in the fall, and in the spring, trim what is undercut in the fall :)), and pruning for fruiting is done in the spring. it consists in pruning last year's branches into 4-8 fruit buds. Leave more - the fruits will be small and not tasty.


I'll write about stone fruits a little later, if it's interesting to read my opuses: rolleyes:

Added after 1 hour 17 minutes
II. Stone breeds
The stone fruits include cherries, apricots, plums, cherry plums, etc., which have one seed inside, covered with a thick shell. This is the main difference from pome fruits - under natural conditions, it is enough for pome fruits to grow one fruit from an extreme bud - and there will be several seeds in it, and stone fruits need several fruits to grow a similar number of seeds, i.e. one apical bud is not enough, therefore, the apical bud is only a growth bud, and fruit buds are formed from lateral buds and without any pruning.

But cropping is still needed.

in stone fruits, fruit buds are formed faster than in pome fruits - in two seasons:
1st: the shoot grows due to the upper growth bud, in the nodes - one leaf and one bud. In general, one operation is applied to these young branches - pinching, i.e. remove this very upper growth bud if the branch has grown too much (more than a meter). Then the branch stops growing in length, the "vital" energy goes to its thickening, ie. the branch becomes stronger and its ability to bear crops increases (a commonplace, of course, but still a pographomaniac :)) after pinching, a panicle may form at the end of the branch - it can (and should) be removed at any time - in late summer, autumn or spring.
2nd: On a branch, regardless of whether it was cut or not (i.e., without special stimulating pruning for fruiting, like in pome fruits), fruit branches with several buds are formed from the lateral nodes (with one leaf and a small bud) ( in cherry, for example, this is the so-called bouquet twig, in apricot - thorns). If you do not cut it off, you will get several pieces of long rare branches that will bear fruit, but which obviously will not be enough. Therefore, a young tree (a year, two after planting) - in the spring you need to cut it for branching - cut off the tip by 1/3 of the length. Then shoots will begin to grow from the upper two or three buds (and the rest will become fruit).So you need to cut off two or three seasons, no more, several skeletal branches (5-7) are enough, on which there are several branches (2-5) branches of the 2nd order, branches of the 3rd and further orders should not be, otherwise the tree it will branch out too much, the illumination of its middle will decrease, the bases of the branches will become bare, there will be no large harvest, the tree will get sick (I have this happened with cherries Valery Chkalov - due to inexperience, I was too carried away by its cutting like an apple tree and now its cardinal thinning and rejuvenation is ripe - I will do in September, I'll post a photo of the process). For the third and subsequent years, pruning for branching is not necessary, in the spring you only need to do thinning pruning - cut out completely annual branches that thicken the crown - growing inward, upward, overlapping and competitors. Leave one or two young shoots on a branch as a continuation of the growth of these branches.

Somewhere the way I understand it and in my own words: rolleyes:

I will also take a photo of the stone ones at the weekend and post it.


Fig. 100. Sizing fruit on a sizing board

The holes in the board are drilled with a special knife, fixed on the axis by a retractable adjustable rod. This allows you to make holes of any caliber using a hand or electric drill. The calibrated fruit is packaged separately and used at the right time.


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