Triticale: cultivation and properties of this interesting cereal
The triticale (Triticosecal) is a cereal that, basically, does not exist in nature since it is a hybrid created by the meeting between wheat and rye, so much so that even its name is the fruit of the union of the two Latin words Triticum, wheat, e Secale, rye.
This was created in second half of the nineteenth century and only relatively recently is it grown on a large scale. This mix of cereals, of course, has been designed so that the best characteristics of the mixed crops were strengthened and it is precisely for this reason that the tirticale unites resistance to cold of rye e the aptitude for baking of wheat, resulting in a valid alternative to rye, in terms of climatic conditions, and to wheat in terms of altitude and acidity of the soil.
In this article we will discover together how to grow it and what its properties are.
Triticale, diffusion and characteristics
As we wrote at the beginning, the triticale has only recently found a certain prestige and, thanks to its particular characteristics, it is able to be cultivated in many parts of the world.
Triticale is a cereal born from the union of rye and wheat
In the areas of Eastern Europe, triticali are sought that are close to rye, while in American continent the varieties reminiscent of wheat are exploited more.
Although little cultivated in Italy, the major producers worldwide are Russia, the United States and Australia.
Morphological characteristics of the triticale
This crop turns out particularly versatile precisely because its characteristics are variable and depend on the hybridization characteristics of the parent plants.
In general, we can say that the triticale has a root system consisting of 3/5 seminal roots, while its leaves are wider and richer in stomata than the common wheat.
The ears, of considerable size, produce from 60 to 150 kernels.
Environmental needs of the triticale
The triticale, despite having non-unique shapes and aspects, seems to have environmental characteristics quite specific: its ideal habitat, in fact, is the one characterized from rather low temperatures (despite not reaching the strength of rye) and high altitudes.
Just like rye, it fits well to sandy and not too fertile soils, resulting more resistant to salinity when compared to other cereals (an example is barley).
From the water point of view it is rather modest, so much so that does not require too much watering as it is able to exploit the water present in the soil well.
How is triticale grown?
Although the cultivation of triticale is particularly similar to that of many other cereals, it must be highlighted some differences and keep them in mind when you get ready to plant and care for it.
It is a plant that is not too demanding in terms of soil and therefore can be cultivated more or less everywhere (except in areas with quicksand); however there are some characteristics that can make this plant more productive, such as being planted in sandy soils.
The optimal pH when it comes to cereals is around around 5, therefore when we are preparing to plant the triticale it will be better to have a soil with a weakly acidic and neutral alkaline reaction; by increasing the pH to 6, the yield of the plant will increase even 25%.
The cultivation of triticale differs little from the cultivation of many other cereals
Speaking, however, of alternating crops on the same land, of the useful predecessors I'm:
- Perennial herbs
- Early potato varieties
While to be avoided absolutely will be other types of cereal.
As for the timing of sowing, these vary from region to region and to identify the most propitious period, it will be necessary to rely on the sowing period of winter wheat.
A few hints on sowing
Sowing the triticale is quite simple: it is enough to use an in-line seeder and arrange the seed at a depth of 5 cm in rows about 20/30 cm apart.
The optimum temperature for seed germination is +20 ° C, the minimum temperature is +5 ° C, the maximum temperature is +35 ° С.
The germs should appear In a week from sowing.
Information on the type of fertilizer and the time of distribution they are similar to those of wheat, while for nitrogen you must be careful because high quantities could increase the phenomenon of lodging.
Despite having a good resistance to weeds, it is always better to rely on chemical weeding to obtain adequate productions.
The parasites affecting the triticale are practically same affecting wheat and rye.
Among these must certainly be mentioned:
- Fungal diseases: ergot (Claviceps purpurea), rusts (Puccinia recondita, Puccinia graminis, Puccinia glumarum), snow mold (Fusarium nivale), powdery mildew (Erisyphe graminis), coal (Ustilago spp.)
- Insects: aphids (Ropalosiphon maydis, Macrosiphum granarium, Anuraphis maidiradicis), wheat cecidomy (Contarinia tritici)
Important properties of triticale
Triticale is a particularly popular cereal for its beneficial properties.
It is, in fact, a cereal rich in fiber which have a regulatory effect on our body: these facilitate digestion and help prevent discomfort such as constipation and diverticulitis.
Triticale: an excellent ally for our health
Plus, it is rich in magnesium, which aids in the production of energy and improves the health of muscles, heart and blood vessels, while also improving blood pressure.
Other benefits that belong to this food are its ability to prevent and manage diabetes, protect against asthma and strengthen bones.
Triticale and diabetes
Triticale can actually be a useful food for those with type 2 diabetes: thanks to its high fiber content and its ability to balance blood sugar levels, it can be considered a good ally to avoid worsening your condition.
Even the content of manganese has a fundamental role against diabetes, as a functional part of various enzymatic processes in the gluconeogenesis, or the process by which our body converts sugars into energy, preventing them from being absorbed by the blood.
Easy to grow and really useful for our body: don't waste time, the triticale is waiting for you!
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Aronia berries, the superfood becomes Made in Italy
Peter Lorenzo Tega he is now 42 years old and has an interesting life choice that we want to tell: he worked for about fifteen years in thebuilding with an eye on environmental issues, skills that he has been able to exploit in quite another company.
Today, in fact, Pietro left the computer to take up the hoe and carry on thefarm founded by his father Davide forty years earlier (mid-70s) and becoming the owner since 2016.
Tell us about yourself, about how you chose to grow Aronia berries and about your company
L'Tega Farm has existed for several decades, family-run (dad Davide, mom Paola, children Sarah, Pietro and Sofia), on its twenty hectares of property are grown wheat, corn, soy, alfalfa, triticale, as well as a part dedicated to woods coppice.
In 2009, during a trip to German-speaking Switzerland to visit family friends, we got to know one small local agricultural fair of Aronia (aronia melanocarpa), bringing home a plant.
Intrigued, we read more about this shrub and we were amazed to read about it countless and extraordinary properties of aronia berries.
In 2011 (a year before leaving office life), the family decided to undertake a diversification of production, introducing a cultivation of berries, predominantly blueberry but also blackberries and raspberries, and of course Aronia, which at the time was practically unknown in our country as a fruit intended for food.
Since I left my surveyor business, I immediately invested a lot of energy and resources in the development of this new type of crops: every two / three years I proceeded to double the orchards at the same time I also set up a direct sales point in the company and today we are close to reaching 10,000 square meters of small fruits.
What does it mean to cultivate with passion, in full respect of nature?
L'love for nature, respect for its balance and its resources spontaneously led me to set up this type of cultivation in a biological way from the beginning, using some of our lands that had been dormant for over a decade, the exclusive use of naturally derived fertilizers is another factor of great importance.
Water also plays a fundamental role and here I have created several systems for recovering rainwater, which is then distributed through drip irrigation, aimed at a more efficient and conscious use of water resources, limiting the depletion of aquifers.
The whole is powered by a photovoltaic system exclusively dedicated to the operation of the pumps and cold rooms for the conservation of the collected products.
In 2019 we will achieve the Organic certification for our wild berries, an important step to guarantee the quality of our products, because in the end we are really what we eat.
Grow what they call superfoods, health beneficial foods - how do you choose them?
We had some in the garden for over twenty years blueberry plants who have always given us delicious fruits, the choice to start growing berries was born from a very simple reason, all of us in the family have always been greedy!
Of course, betweenhave some plants in the garden or instead a few thousand in the orchards, the commitment and the problems change considerably. Berries can give the idea of hardy plants, easy, but that's not the case at all and getting a marketable product really takes a lot of effort.
There are many adversities and problems: diseases, harmful insects (popilia, bedbugs, etc.), birds (greedy for berries!), Hail (which in two minutes can destroy an entire year). So we pondered many pros and cons why the risk of a flop can be very real.
Aronia berries: tell us more about this fruit that is still "mysterious" for many?
L'Aronia is a bushy shrub, originally from eastern North America and introduced in Europe in the early 1900s. Very common in the Soviet Union and in the countries of Eastern Europe, the aronia here is well known for its health properties.
The plant prefers a basically acidic, humid soil, it does not tolerate hot summers. Like all fruit trees, to obtain a good production, it needs regular fertilization and pruning, the berries ripen in autumn.
As the most common American giant blueberry, theBlack Aronia has extraordinary antioxidant properties, is the plant that contains the most anthocyanins overall (five times more than Goji berries!), polyphenols, flavonoids, which counteract the formation of free radicals, therefore thecellular aging.
IS' very rich in iron, (100 g of dried berries contain 93% of the recommended daily dose), has anti-inflammatory, vasoprotective properties, contains vitamins A, C, E and K, numerous mineral salts and a high content of quinic acid (drinking pure juice helps purify the urinary tract, promoting the elimination of infections).
It can be eaten fresh or dried, dipped in yogurt (perhaps with the addition of muesli and a drizzle of honey), you can also make smoothies, extracts, jams, herbal teas, juices, ice creams, cakes, snacks.
In Italy the cultivation of Aronia berries is not widespread.
As soon as you cross the Alps, as in Switzerland, Austria, Germany, the Aronia is really well known and consumed. Here, between Piedmont and Lombardy, we are not aware of other companies that have decided to grow this berry, having started in 2011 we consider ourselves a bit of the pioneers in this sense.
But we have testimonials, provided by some of our consumer customers, that in Trentino it is not uncommon to find dried berries served during breakfast in hotels, perhaps this trend is due precisely to the fact that that region is greatly affected by the eating habits of neighboring Austria.
How do you market Aronia berries?
Aronia, as well as all our other berries, we sell them at our company store in Landiona (No), via per Carpignano Sesia, 71. During the harvesting period we sell it fresh, or dried or made into compotes and juices concentrates (90% fruit), obtained by cold pressing to keep all its properties intact.
Our clientele is mostly private but we serve regularly fruit and vegetable shops, ice cream parlors, pastry shops, restaurants, in short, all those realities that can make use of these fruits. We are a zero kilometer reality much appreciated, at the moment we do not supply large retailers but in the future we do not exclude it.
Benefits of goji berries for humans
Goji berries, planted and cared for in Chinese provinces, have already reached an industrial dimension, are incredibly popular in traditional medicine in China and Tibet.
The properties of these "magical" berries cannot be overstated. Goji - a valuable source of more than twenty minerals, a range of natural vegetable fats and carbohydrates, 18 rare amino acids, linoleic acid, proteins, fatty acids, fiber, vitamins C, E and group B.
Of course, the goji berries, planted and cared for for those that are produced in Russia, are much inferior in terms of the amount of minerals and vitamins to similar fruits produced in the mountains of Tibet or in China. But also "goji from the dacha" can provide the human body with the daily norm of all the above substances.
In addition to using these berries for the most heralded weight loss, taking goji solves many medical and physiological problems: improving metabolism and skin condition, reducing blood sugar levels, regulating the level of melatonin, help against depression and sleep disorders, improve immunity and promote body rejuvenation. There is an opinion that the use of goji is the secret of the success of Middle Kingdom athletes, the reason for their incredible endurance.
Chilli: varieties and characteristics
Very famous original variety of Yucatan peninsula occurs in nature in a numerous series of sub-varieties very different from each other in texture and flavor. FromHabanero chocolate to the Red one, passing through the Orange up to Peach this cultivar confirms itself as one of the most famous in the world, more cultivated and used in the kitchen.
It is a now legendary variety among the best known in the world and it comes straight from the warm lands of Mexico. It becomes the protagonist at the table because it is widely used in tex mex cuisine thanks to her balanced spiciness and the turgid and crunchy pulp. These organoleptic characteristics make it perfect for combinations bold in vegetable sauces and hearty meats and its extreme versatility in the kitchen elevates it to the success of Mexican cuisine.
Fruit originally from Peru it occurs in nature as a robust plant, with discrete fruits with a typically elongated shape, of yellow orange color and not too spicy. Easily usable in the kitchen thanks to its intense but moderate flavor it is perfect when paired with excellent fresh fish.
Remember very the famous sauce and is at the origin of its preparation, the tabasco it's a cultivar very interesting is it stands out for as well as for its unmistakable flavor and extreme spiciness, also due to the ease with which it is possible to grow it even at home.
The color of this chili pepper brings joy and charm at first glance. Plant come on small shrubs presents fleshy, bright yellow fruits, very versatile and used in the kitchen thanks to a spiciness of medium intensity e from the sweet and aromatic aftertaste.
It is well known among connoisseurs for being absolute the hottest chili in the world. According to the ranking of the Guinness World Record the variety of chilli Carolina Reaper is among the most powerful for spiciness and is intended only for specialized palates, as well as extremely courageous!
Challenge fought with the Carolina Reaper the Naga Morich chilli comes from fascinating and sinuous lands of India and thrives in thrilling Bangladesh. It likes strictly tropical temperatures and therefore requires a warm humid climate, which is why the cultivation of this variety often takes place indoor.
As the nomenclature says it is a purely ornamental pepper plant with delicate and colorful fruits. Also called "bonsai pepperIs a plant that on the same shrub it has several fruits of different colors, an aesthetic element that consecrates it as one of the most beautiful varieties to grow on the balcony of the house or to embellish a refined corner of the house with originality and audacity.
The name it comes from bright yellow color of its fruits which occur in nature elongated and of discrete size with long and resistant shrubs.
In the memory of one of the most famous ancient civilizations of all time this cultivar is typical of the Mexican area and occurs in nature as a plant with medium-length branches and medium-sized fruits that are abundant they grow almost to create delightful bouquets of floral inspiration. When fully ripe, the fruits tend to grow by extending the tip upwards, so much so as to give it the nickname "look to the sky”.
A trip in beautiful Italy between warm and authentic lands of Calabria to get to know one of the most curious and widespread varieties. The chilli diavolicchio is the prince of the table that depopulated in the recipe books of the Calabrian tradition preserving an intense spiciness and which holds its own against South American varieties. On our tables it's possible consume it fresh but it retains its characteristics well if dried, enhancing its taste and versatility.
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In Italy, most of the clementine crops are concentrated in Calabria, where the fruit has found its ideal habitat. In particular, these are lowland areas on the Ionian coasts, namely: the Piana di Sibari and Corigliano in the Cosentino area, the Piana di Lamezia in the Catanzaro area, the Piana di Gioia Tauro-Rosarno and the Locride in the Reggio area. These areas are characterized by particularly mild winters, with loose and deep soils where citrus fruits vegetate in an exceptional way. For this reason the Calabrian clementines produced in these territories have the I.G.P. brand (Protected Geographical Indication).
Climate and exposure
The mild climate is therefore the ideal one for the cultivation of clementines. However, still in Calabria, it is not difficult to observe trees grown in hilly areas more inland and with decidedly harsher winters. The important thing is the sunny exposure and the absence of cold winds and prolonged frosts. Therefore, we can say that the cultivation of a citrus grove dedicated only to clementines must be done in suitable areas with a mild climate. In a family orchard, single or few trees are also cultivated in the hills.
In the organic cultivation of citrus fruits, the physical characteristics of the soil they are very important. The soils to be preferred for planting are those in which sand, silt and clay are found in balanced proportions. The best soil is the one with the following characteristics: deep, uniform, of medium texture. The percentages should be: clay 15-20%, silt 15-20%, sand 40-60%, limestone 5-10%, skeleton 5-10%
The pH should also be neutral, between 6.5-7.5. Soils with more than 30% clay and rich in limestone should be avoided.
Choice of rootstock
Clementines reproduce with the grafting technique, practicing the crown graft, a scudetto or a dormant gem. The choice of related rootstocks is very important for the success of the cultivation. On clementines, in this sense, theAlemow, which adapts well to the most difficult terrains. However, it is very sensitive to low temperatures and to the disease of badly dry citrus fruits. For this we advise you to read our in-depth study on How to choose the rootstock of citrus fruits, so that you can get a more precise idea of what best suits the pedoclimatic characteristics of your area.
Planting period and distances
The best time to plant in the orchard a clementine tree is the beginning of spring. This is because the risk of sudden drops in temperature is now behind us. In the hole of the planting agrees spread very mature manure, which will be our basic fertilization. The distances to be maintained for the plant are 4 m between one plant and another on the row and 5 m between any rows.
Irrigation is important in too dry seasons, when natural rainfall is unable to maintain sufficient moisture in the soil. The most critical periods are thefruit set and fruit growth, phases that embrace the long spring and summer season. Better to avoid overhead irrigation localized watering, creating a drip system. The wettings of the soil must always be moderate, so as not to create water stagnations and avoid rotting of the collar.
The clementines benefit from an annual fertilization, to be carried out at the end of winter, once the harvest is complete. The tree can be fertilized by amending the soil around the trunk of the mature manure or ground lupins.
Clementine trees are grown in a globe, with full foliage, in order to support the natural bearing of the species. For this reason, the ascending branches should not be removed, but only those in excess, inserted on the same branch. Pruning is done in early spring, after flowering. To do it, the advice is to follow the suggestions of our in-depth study: How and when to do citrus pruning.
Parasites of clementines
Clementines suffer from the same parasitic attacks as other citrus species. Specifically, we have the different species of cochineal, such as, for example, the cottony cochineal and the citrus fruit cotonello. Very worrying, in some areas, is the progressive spread of Aleurocanthus spiniferus, that is the thorny aleurodide of citrus fruits. These parasites must be controlled at the first outbreaks of infestation, before the vegetation is soiled by honeydew with the consequent smokiness. THE products allowed in organic farming to be used on clementines are white mineral oil (for winter and summer treatments) and soft soap. These are products that are easy to find (find the first here is the second here). Another noteworthy parasite of clementines is the serpentine miner of citrus fruits. In this case it is good use neem oil.
The clementines are susceptible to dry sore, which is, at the moment, the most important disease for citrus fruits. To avoid it, it is necessary to use resistant or tolerant rootstocks, so that the disease cannot progress. The use of copper-based products as prevention is recommended immediately after pruning or following adverse weather conditions (hail, frost, strong winds, etc.).
Rich in beneficial virtues, this ancient variety of spelled is a valid ally for our health at the table. In fact, it contains a good concentration of mineral salts, including iron, magnesium and phosphorus, e vitamins. Among these well represented are those of group B, in particular the riboflavin, substance considered essential for our energy metabolism.
It also contains numerous other nutrients useful for daily well-being.
Spelled: how many fibers
Thanks to its high content of fibers, it helps intestinal regularity and plays an important prebiotic action in favor of good intestinal bacteria.
In addition, the high concentration of soluble fiber makes it a suitable food also for reducing the levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Spelled in the diet
Thanks to its reduced caloric intake, it is also a suitable food for those who are following a particular dietary regime. In addition, it is also recommended for its remarkable satiating power.
Spelled glycemic index
The glycemic index of whole wheat is 35. It is, therefore, a lower value than that of other cereals, such as wheat is rice White. The release of sugars thus takes place more gradually, avoiding glycemic peaks.
Spelled and diabetes
Thanks to its reduced glycemic index, can be consumed, with due care and with medical advice, even by those suffering from diabetes.