Irises: shelter for the winter, diseases and pests, varieties
Read the previous part. ← Irises: soil preparation, dividing bushes and planting
Shelter of irises for the winter
Before watering, you can loosen the soil, this will help moisture to penetrate directly to the root system, and the air exchange of the soil will also improve.
The flowering period of irises, alas, is fleeting, like a flash. Summer passes, it is replaced by autumn, and then winter with its cold - it's time to cover the irises. Of course, you can do without this, the irises will overwinter, but if frosts fall on the ground not covered with snow, the root system, which is not very deep, may suffer. A layer of non-acidic peat or humus about 10 centimeters thick is ideal for sheltering irises. If there is no peat and humus, then ordinary dry leaves can be used.
Overwintered irises usually start growing quickly and look full of vigor. However, it also happens that growth delays are observed, or the color of the foliage changes towards a lighter one. This may indicate that the soil lacks nutrients, and the plant is hungry. This often happens when irises grow in one place for a long time without dividing.
The introduction of mineral fertilizers will help to avoid an unpleasant situation. They can be applied several times per season, while the first feeding is usually carried out at the very beginning of plant growth. The irises that begin their active growth are fed by diluting urea (a tablespoon) and potassium sulfate in the same dose in a bucket of water, and the plants are watered with this solution, while spending five liters per square meter of soil.
The second feeding is usually carried out in the budding phase of the plants, using the same composition and dose. The third top dressing can be done a couple of weeks after flowering. Here, in addition to potassium sulfate and urea, nitrophoska can be added to the solution in the same volume. The consumption rate of the solution for the third feeding is the same.
Remember that fertilizing under irises is necessary after rains or on wet soil, accompanying the fertilizing by loosening the soil. They must be completed by mid-July.
Diseases and pests of irises
But not always a sickly type of plant means a lack of elements in the soil. Sometimes this is due to the appearance of pests or to the processes occurring in the plant as a result of the development of a disease. The most dangerous on irises is rhizome and leaf base rot.
Harmful to iris plants and rust. To get rid of the rot of the rhizomes, it is necessary to dig up the plants, cut out the affected rhizomes, and place the remaining, that is, healthy ones, in a solution of a disinfectant. But here potassium permanganate will not work, it is better to use copper oxychloride, known as Hom. Parts of plants must be kept in the preparation for half an hour. If the weather is hot outside, then you can simply leave the plants in the sun for 10-12 hours, periodically turning them over in order to warm them from all sides.
An equally dangerous disease of irises is heterosporosis, when small brown spots are formed on the outer leaves of affected plants, approximately in the second part of summer. Soon, they spread so much that the leaves turn brown.
It is more effective to fight this disease by cutting off all affected leaves. In the early stages of the development of the disease, treatment with copper sulfate also helps. It is necessary to dilute 100 g of this drug in a bucket of water.
In addition to diseases, pests periodically appear on irises. Among them, the most dangerous is the gladiolus thrips. It is better to fight it with the help of insecticides, one of the variants of which is the drug "Confidor".
Now let's talk about the varieties of bearded iris. This plant has a lot of them, but the most famous, which have received the widest distribution, are the following:
New Snow - The flowers of this variety are pure white in color with a slightly noticeable yellow beard. The flowers are quite large, very fragrant, late ripening.
May Hall... One-color variety with salmon pink, very aromatic flowers of medium to large size. The plant is medium-sized.
Winners Sackle... One-color iris of dark purple color with a white speck under a blue-blue beard. Blooms very profusely and annually.
Irish Dream... A one-color, light lemon-yellow variety with a bright yellow beard, it is distinguished by a very delicate and very attractive color.
Merion Made - one-color light blue with a slightly purple tint and a yellow beard cultivar. The flowers are quite large. The variety is good both in the garden and in the bouquet.
department of berry crops VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin.
Preparing irises for winter. Shelter of irises for the winter
The characteristic structure of iris flowers (iris, cockerel), slightly reminiscent of an orchid, is remembered by everyone at first sight. The variety of pure colors in bright rainbow shades, the presence of early, medium and re-flowering plant varieties of various heights (from 15 cm to 1.2 m) in the family make these flowers desirable inhabitants of our garden plots. Since their popularity is constantly growing, breeders annually provide an incredible number of varieties and hybrids of both rhizome and bulbous irises to choose from, which in some countries have already been identified as a separate group of iris. Unfortunately, recently these flowers have gained fame as sissies, often freezing and falling out in winter, which, of course, frightens beginners who want to ennoble their site with them. However, compliance with the rules of planting and caring for irises will allow even the most inexperienced not only to preserve them in winter, but also to create a real iridarium on the site soon.
As you know, the successful wintering of many plants is directly related to the climate of the region in which they are grown. This also applies to irises. In a wide variety of bulbous and rhizome species, there are both fairly frost-resistant varieties that winter in the open field without problems, and sensitive overseas sissies that cannot stand the conditions of our wintering. Unfortunately, climatic changes in recent years make it difficult to predict how severe the winter might be. In this regard, it is recommended to grow non-frost-resistant varieties only in the south, and in the north and in the middle lane - to select proven frost-resistant varieties, preferably from a domestic collection.
Gardeners have already established empirically that undersized irises are better tolerated in winter. Among the fairly frost-resistant bulbous irises can be noted (height 10 - 15 cm): I. Vinogradov, I. Dunford, I. reticular and medium-sized English bulbous irises (for example, the ‘Giant’ variety). Of the rhizomes, dwarf (up to 25 cm) species of bearded irises are considered the most reliable for wintering: I. leafless, I. Biberstein and I. dwarf. The rather popular undersized bulbous Dutch (‘Wedgwood’), Spanish (‘Cajanus’) irises and rhizome I. crested, I. nameless, I. lacustrine do not tolerate frosty winters. Tall rhizome irises are grown by gardeners on plots most often, but among them wild beardless I. Siberian, I. marsh, I. bristly, I. eastern and I. yellow are distinguished by good frost resistance. Very decorative Japanese irises and all tall varieties of bearded iris are more thermophilic and often freeze slightly in snowless winters.
Of course, the wintering of irises also depends on the correct planting and care of these flowers during the growing season, since the plants must be prepared in advance for winter. It is obvious that the planting of bulbous and rhizome irises is different, but the place for all of them must be selected on a small elevation with permeable soil in order to exclude stagnant water. Moreover, bulbous irises after flowering should be kept in as dry conditions as possible, to the extent that in the rainy period they are covered with glass on top from precipitation. If this is not possible, these irises are generally recommended to be grown as gladioli - every year after flowering, they should be dug up and planted only next spring. In the same way, it is possible to preserve varieties of non-frost-resistant irises in regions with harsh climatic conditions. Just keep in mind that you should only dig up the bulbs after the leaves are completely dry. It is not necessary to maintain the temperature regime for their storage (as, for example, for tulips), it is enough to dry it at a temperature of 20 - 25 ° C for a month and remove it before disembarking in a dry ventilated room. In spring, iris bulbs are planted in the garden when the soil warms up to 10 ° C.
Frost-resistant types of bulbous irises after flowering are also limited in watering, but they are not dug up annually. If there is a need (for example, for reproduction once every 4 - 5 years), then they are dug out immediately after the leaves turn yellow (do not wait for drying!), Dried, separated the children and planted for wintering in open ground in September - October, so that they have time take root, but did not begin to grow. In November, after the first frost, the planting of bulbous irises is covered with spruce branches or dry leaves in case of a snowless frosty winter. In the spring, after the snow melts, the shelter is removed early so that the soil warms up and thaws faster.
Rhizome irises are known to be planted in such a way that some of the roots are above the soil surface. It is this part that suffers the fastest during the winter thaws, when melt water forms a crust of ice on the soil surface on frosty days. Fortunately, even partially freezing roots remain alive and the plants can be preserved if they are prepared in advance for wintering. Firstly, during the growing season, irises should not be overfed with nitrogen, especially in the second half of summer. It is enough to apply complex fertilizer no more than once a month in the amount of 1 spoon per bucket of water. Secondly, since the end of summer, watering is also limited and unnecessarily irises do not disturb even with weeding. If there is a need for a transplant, it is carried out early - in August - mid-September, since full rooting in irises lasts two months, but it is better to postpone this procedure until spring. At the beginning of November, the foliage of the plants is cut off with a cone at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground in order to improve the flow of water. Leaves are not left on the mulch, and after the first frosts, sprinkle the rhizome with a layer of earth or peat (10 cm). From above, to keep the snow, you can also cover it with spruce branches. Covering with manure or caking materials (leaves, straw) is not recommended, as this can cause the plants to dry out.
Many sources recommend organizing a winter shelter only for non-frost-resistant varieties of irises, but practical experience shows that unpredictably severe frosts in recent years damage almost all plants. In this regard, it is strongly recommended to cover irises in the first year of planting and very old bushes, in which the rhizome protrudes strongly. And if we take into account that even in frost-resistant varieties at a temperature in the root zone of minus 12 - 14 ° C, flower buds can die, then it is better to cover them too. Of course, frost is not terrible for plants under a layer of snow of 15 - 20 cm, but winter can be with little snow, so reassurance will not be superfluous.
In the spring, when it is already possible to walk in the garden after the snow has melted, the shelter from the irises is removed and the earth is raked away in order to warm up the "backs" of the rhizomes faster. If they are still frozen in winter, then in this place the rhizome becomes like a gruel. These softened areas are gently scooped off with a spoon, scrubbing to a healthy, hard tissue. The resulting wound is treated with a strong solution of potassium permanganate (brilliant green) and, after drying, sprinkle with charcoal or ash. Irises "treated" in this way do not die and can bloom fully.
Of course, most chic varietal irises are sissy and require increased attention to themselves, but their flowering is really worth it. And in order to partially simplify the preparation procedure for winter, you can organize an iridarium (garden of irises) and then create a common shelter for all flowers at once for the winter.
Most plants belonging to the genus iris accumulate nutrients in a thick rhizome, which is located horizontally in them. During their growth, annual growth becomes clearly visible on them. Some varieties of these flowers are grown from bulbs.
A very important condition for the cultivation of these plants is the right choice of the place. It is necessary that it be protected from the winds, but at the same time bright and open to the sun. This is especially important in the morning. There must also be good drainage.
The Siberian variety of irises grows well where there is partial shade. In bright sunlight, their delicate blue flowers quickly fade and become inconspicuous.
Most species of these flowers prefer light loamy soil, but they also take root well on sandy soil. If the soil is heavy, too damp and clay predominates, then it can be diluted with sand and peat. Only marsh irises thrive in high humidity and low-lying areas.
Spring and autumn planting
The most convenient time for transplanting is the period after the end of flowering. Flowers take root well, which are planted in the spring. Plants, together with an earthen clod, are allowed to be transferred to new places throughout the warm season.
In the spring, they begin to transplant irises when new young leaves appear. However, in this case, the planting bed should be prepared in the fall.
Planting in the autumn begins to prepare from the end of August, when the summer heat is no longer so strong. But plants should be planted even before October, that is, before the onset of severe cold weather. The soil should be dug up and if it is heavy, it should be diluted with sand. It is necessary to fill up the roots so that the "back" remains a little on the surface, and after planting, good watering is necessary. The root system should not be mulched as this can hinder growth.
How to plant?
In spring, bearded irises are planted in open ground (but it is necessary that the earth has already dried up after melt water) or in summer, from July to August... For the front garden of irises, sunny places are selected; for certain varieties, flower beds with a slight shade for half a day are suitable. In the shade, the plant has few flowers. Wind protection is required, as the stalks can break from strong gusts.
It is recommended to prepare the area for irises in advance. The bed is poured higher. Shallow grooves are dug around the area where the irises will grow - this simple drainage system will prevent water from stagnating. Irises prefer neutral soil; slightly acidic soil is suitable for certain varieties.
Lovers of these beautiful flowers prepare the soil in this way:
- sand mixtures are added to dense and heavy
- sand and peat are poured into clay and loam
- acidic will make lime or ash neutral.
The earth is carefully dug up, removing weeds. The area where the irises will grow is watered with a fungicide. To protect against weeds, they are treated with herbicides. Compost can be applied 25 cm deep into the soil, but not mixed with the soil. Manure is not used to feed irises.
For planting iris rhizome must be well formed, dense and free of decay, with foliage of at least 15 cm... Shoot rudiments are visible with yellowish-green tubercles.The central sheets are dense and green, the side sheets are permissible dried.
Very large roots come from an excess of fertilizing, plants from them are more susceptible to disease. It is not necessary to immediately plant the plant in the front garden, drying is useful for a young bush. Do not store planting material in polyethylene and in a humid environment.
It is important to plant irises correctly... The hole for the bush is made shallow, dry earth is poured with a mound in the middle and the rhizome is laid, carefully distributing the roots on the sides. The thick rhizome is covered with sand on the sides by 2 cm, and the roots are covered with earth. The middle part with leaves remains above the surface. A distance of approximately 50 cm is maintained between tall species, and 30 cm between dwarf species.
- chess (at a distance of 50 cm)
- in rows (between bushes 40 cm)
- around (at a distance of 30 cm).
Representatives of this species are shrubs, reaching heights from 10 to 13 meters. The cultivated varieties are lower than those that grow in natural conditions. Young shoots of juniper are tetrahedral, about 2 cm long. Leaves are scaly ovoid, green or grayish-gray in color, opposite. There are also small needle-like leaves on the shrub of some varieties. When ripe, berries are formed in the form of a blue ball with a smoky bloom. During its existence, landscape designers have become very fond of this species. They planted gardens, parks, gardens, personal plots, decorate rock gardens, rockeries, etc. The most popular varieties with a crown in the form of a pyramid or a column.
Preparing and covering roses for the winter
Preparing roses for winter is especially important in regions where the climate is quite cool. If it is not carried out correctly, it can lead to the death of flowers. Today's popular hybrids and varieties of garden roses can no longer go into a dormant state on their own. That is why, even in late autumn, their stems are covered with foliage, and also flowers along with buds often flaunt on them at this time.
With the onset of the first frost, the rose bushes enter a state of dormancy. However, after the air warms up on the street again and the temperature is above 0 degrees, the bushes begin to wake up, while a resumption of sap flow is observed in them. After it gets cold outside again to minus 3 degrees, the juice freezes in the shoots, which leads to tissue rupture. As a result, frost holes appear, which are cracks of considerable length, inside of which there is ice. In these places where there is damage, pathogenic microbes easily penetrate into the tissues. As a result, with the subsequent thaw, the active development of the disease may begin. In order to protect roses from frost damage and disease damage, you will need to create a dry shelter. In it, the juice, which can flow out of the cracks formed on the shoots, dries quickly, which is why the wounds are easily tightened.
How to plant?
Choosing the right place for flowers is the key to their healthy growth and lush bloom. They love sun-drenched areas, ideally the area should be well lit. Also, these exotics can take root in partial shade, and in very dark places they are unlikely to be able to bloom. Weakly acidic loams are well suited for these perennials. They also love compost fertilization, but due to potassium intolerance, Japanese irises will not grow in open ground with lime. Alkaline soils are not to the taste of these capricious beauties.
Before immersing the stem in the ground, the leaves and roots are slightly shortened. The grooves for flowers should be placed in increments of 30-35 cm. Stick the stems into the soil to a depth of 3-7 cm. If you decide to divide an already growing shrub, then the resulting stems need to be sunk into the soil deeper than they grew before. After the plants are planted, they need to be watered.